Abbreviation: Biotechnol. Mol. Biol. Rev.
Start Year: 2006
Page 1 of 5, showing 20 records out of 99 total, starting on record 1, ending on 20
DOI: 10.5897/BMBR2016.0256[Article Number: 156B3C458824]
The genetically engineered insect-resistant crops, Bt crops, were first commercially grown in 1996 and adopted in different countries. The economic benefits of Bt crops are reducing the use of insecticides and more safe to environment, however, development of resistance by insects might reduce their efficacy. Unfortunately, the field population evolved resistance to different Bt toxins and the number of resistant... Read more.
DOI: 10.5897/BMBR2015.0246[Article Number: 9AA790354184]
Africa is experiencing reoccurrence of avian influenza outbreaks with huge negative impact on the economy of the continent as a result of high mortality rate and extreme contagiousness of the disease. The epidemiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Africa during the 2006-2008 outbreaks was complex and linked to movements of poultry commodities and wild birds. The peculiar risk factors, negative economic... Read more.
DOI: 10.5897/BMBR2014-0234[Article Number: 1FFA2C251178]
Overuse of inorganic fertilizers have contributed to an increase in soil acidity in global arable land and consequently caused an increase in Aluminium ion (Al3+) toxicity and a reduction of crop yield of between 30-50% in developing countries. Studies show that Al3+ toxicity inhibits cell division in the root tip meristem in sensitive plants even at micromolar concentrations. Applications of lime, manure and... Read more.
DOI: 10.5897/BMBR2014-0237[Article Number: ADB05CF49520]
Carbohydrates which comprise of monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides are heterogeneous complex structure in living systems and are found to bind to other organic molecules such as proteins and lipids. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are also heterogeneous group of molecules that accumulate in plasma and other body fluids and in cell and tissues. This review focuses on the impact of polysaccharides... Read more.
DOI: 10.5897/BMBR2013.0224[Article Number: 584B70E45949]
Fasciolosis is a worldwide zoonotic infection caused by liver flukes of the genus Fasciola, of which Fasciola hepatica and a larger species, Fasciola gigantica are the most common representatives. These two food-borne trematodes usually infect domestic ruminants and cause important economic losses to sheep, goats and cattle. In commercial herds, fasciolosis is of great economic significance worldwide with losses... Read more.
DOI: 10.5897/BMBR2014.0223[Article Number: 9281ED545168]
The term single cell protein (SCP) refers to the dried microbial cells or total protein extracted from pure microbial culture (algae, bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts) which serves as food or/and feed supplements. Different substrate and fermentation optimizations are being carried out to maximize SCP production. However, little attention was given to coculturing. SCPs are produced better using coculture than... Read more.
DOI: 10.5897/BMBR2013.0216[Article Number: 0B1584444931]
Rapid diagnosis and treatment of disease is often based on the identification and characterization of causative agents derived from phenotypic characteristics. This can be laborious and time consuming, often requiring many skilled personnel and a large amount of lab space. However, the introduction of nucleic acid amplification techniques into molecular biology has transformed the laboratory detection of pathogens. The... Read more.
[Article Number: 68CC9AE40231]
Presently industrial enzyme companies sell enzymes for a wide variety of applications. The estimated value of world enzyme market is presently about US $ 4.3 billion and it has been forecasted to grow to almost US $ 5.1 billion by 2009. Detergents (37%), textiles (12%), starch (11%), baking (8%) and animal feed (6%) are the main industries; totally these industries use about 74% of industrially produced enzymes. Enzymes... Read more.
[Article Number: 4769BA440233]
Plants, animals and several unicellular eukaryotes use programmed cell death (PCD) for defense and developmental mechanisms. While cell death pathways in animals have been well characterized, relatively little is known about the molecular mechanism of such a strategy in plants. Although, very few regulatory proteins or protein domains have been identified as conserved across all eukaryotic PCD forms,... Read more.
DOI: 10.5897/BMBR07.003[Article Number: F5B457640317]
Usually, most of the genes are biallelically expressed but imprinted gene exhibit monoallelic expression based on their parental origin. Genomic imprinting exhibit differences in control between flowering plants and mammals, for instance, imprinted gene are specifically activated by demethylation, rather than targeted for silencing in plants and imprinted gene expression in plant which occur in endosperm. It also... Read more.
DOI: 10.5897/BMBR10.037[Article Number: 07DB69840318]
The purpose of this research paper was to review the different molecular biology techniques that are used in landfill investigations. The methods discussed include polymerase chain reaction (PCR), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA). Operation of landfills as bioreactors is now becoming a common practice, which involves the identification of different... Read more.
DOI: 10.5897/BMBR12.007[Article Number: 1C236FE12554]
The timely detection and appropriate identification of causal agents associated with disease of crop plants or seeds are considered to be the most important issue in formulating the management strategies for plant diseases. This is particularly important for plant diseases of a bacterial nature, where disease-free planting materials is the only effective way to restrict the disease. The detection of bacterial pathogens... Read more.
DOI: 10.5897/BMBR2013.008[Article Number: 446A6AA12568]
New, emerging, and re-emerging infectious disease incidences have increased rapidly and frequently with significant human and financial costs. Most of the viral infectious diseases are of zoonotic nature, and public awareness of the human health risks of infections have grown in recent years, since viral epidemics such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, West-Nile virus, and Ebola virus diseases have... Read more.
DOI: 10.5897/BMBR11.026[Article Number: FFF757212533]
Division of the ancestral prokaryotic genome into two circular double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules by genetic recombination, is a basis for the future separate evolution of the nuclear and mitochondrial gene compartment. This suggests monophyletic origin of both mitochondrion and nucleus. Presumed organism which genome undergoes genetic recombination has to be searched among an aerobic, oxygen... Read more.
DOI: 10.5897/BMBR11.027[Article Number: AE2589412544]
Proteases in normal cells are important in carrying out biological processes. In living systems, a balance between proteases and their anti-proteases occur, and disturbance of balance leads to many diseases like cancer. Steps starting from tumor initiation, growth, metastasis and finally invasion into some other site involve all five classes of proteases: serine, cysteine, aspartate, threonine and matrix... Read more.
DOI: 10.5897/BMBR12.006[Article Number: 2A84D4E12478]
One of the major environmental problems facing the world today is the contamination of soil, water and air by toxic chemicals as a result of industrialization and extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Incineration is currently the most effective and common remediation practice but is costly in terms of money and energy used. A rapid cost effective and ecologically responsible method of clean-up is... Read more.
DOI: 10.5897/BMBR11.024[Article Number: CD1267A11930]
Seafoods in their natural environments are associated with a variety of microorganisms. Fish shelf life reduction results from microbial metabolism, mainly by Gram negative bacteria that produce chemical compounds responsible for bad odour, texture and taste. Shelflife is estimated by performing total viable bacterial counts at ambient and refrigeration temperatures. The type and number of bacteria present on seafood... Read more.
DOI: 10.5897/BMBR12.001[Article Number: A90B3C311950]
Millets, comprising the small-seeded group of the Poaceae family, represent one of the major food- and feed-crops in the semi-arid tropical regions of Africa and Asia. Compared to major crops of the world, these indigenous crops possess a number of beneficial characteristics including tolerance to extreme climatic and soil conditions; hence, adapts to poor soil fertility and moisture deficient areas. Moreover, millets... Read more.
DOI: 10.5897/BMBR12.004[Article Number: 066C6C412508]
A dynamic mediatory role between starch synthesis and degradation has been ascribed to starch phosphorylase. However, plant starch phosphorylase is largely considered to be involved in phosphorolytic degradation of starch. It reversibly catalyzes the transfer of glucosyl units from glucose-1-phosphate to the non-reducing end of glucan chain with the release of inorganic phosphate. It is widely distributed in... Read more.
[Article Number: 4C9671911938]
The first antimicrobial peptides were isolated from the cecropia moth Hyalophora cecropia in 1980. Since then a plethora of antimicrobial peptides have been isolated from other arthropods, invertebrates and chordates. With the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens and the promising activity of these peptides, attempts are being made to use these peptides as new antimicrobial agents. Other... Read more.
Page 1 of 5, showing 20 records out of 99 total, starting on record 1, ending on 20