Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews

  • Abbreviation: Biotechnol. Mol. Biol. Rev.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1538-2273
  • DOI: 10.5897/BMBR
  • Start Year: 2006

BMBR Articles

October 2016

Basics of animal cell culture: Foundation for modern science

The culture of animal cells is one of the major aspects of science which serves as a foundation for most of our recent discoveries. The major areas of application include cancer research, vaccine manufacturing, recombinant protein production, drug selection and improvement, gene therapy, stem cell biology, monoclonal antibody production, in vitro fertilization technology, cryopreservation and in vitro production of...

Author(s): Oyeleye O. O., Ogundeji S. T, Ola S. I. and Omitogun O. G.

May 2016

Resistance to Bt Crops; Influence, mechanisms and management strategies

The genetically engineered insect-resistant crops, Bt crops, were first commercially grown in 1996 and adopted in different countries. The economic benefits of Bt crops are reducing the use of insecticides and more safe to environment, however, development of resistance by insects might reduce their efficacy. Unfortunately, the field population evolved resistance to different Bt toxins and the number of resistant...

Author(s): Mohammed Esmail Abdalla Elzaki

July 2015

The reoccurrence of H5N1 outbreaks necessitates the development of safe and effective influenza vaccine technologies for the prevention and control of avian influenza in Sub-Saharan Africa

Africa is experiencing reoccurrence of avian influenza outbreaks with huge negative impact on the economy of the continent as a result of high mortality rate and extreme contagiousness of the disease. The epidemiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Africa during the 2006-2008 outbreaks was complex and linked to movements of poultry commodities and wild birds. The peculiar risk factors, negative economic...

Author(s): Bitrus Yakubu, Andrew J. Nok, Owolodun O. A., Luka P. D. and Umaru Dunkura Ali

March 2015

Correlating aluminium toxicity, heterosis and epigenetic mechanisms in maize yield improvement in acid soils

Overuse of inorganic fertilizers have contributed to an increase in soil acidity in global arable land and consequently caused an increase in Aluminium ion (Al3+) toxicity and a reduction of crop yield of between 30-50% in developing countries. Studies show that Al3+ toxicity inhibits cell division in the root tip meristem in sensitive plants even at micromolar concentrations.  Applications of lime, manure and...

Author(s): Josphert  N. Kimatu

January 2015

Immunomodulatory effects of carbohydrates and advanced glycation end products

Carbohydrates which comprise of monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides are heterogeneous complex structure in living systems and are found to bind to other organic molecules such as proteins and lipids. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are also heterogeneous group of molecules that accumulate in plasma and other body fluids and in cell and tissues. This review focuses on the impact of polysaccharides...

Author(s): Kankia, H. I.

July 2014

Comparative analysis of different immunological techniques for diagnosing fasciolosis in sheep: A review

Fasciolosis is a worldwide zoonotic infection caused by liver flukes of the genus Fasciola, of which Fasciola hepatica and a larger species, Fasciola gigantica are the most common representatives. These two food-borne trematodes usually infect domestic ruminants and cause important economic losses to sheep, goats and cattle. In commercial herds, fasciolosis is of great economic significance worldwide with losses...

Author(s): Irfan-ur-Rauf Tak, Jehangir Shafi Dar, B. A. Ganai, M. Z. Chishti, R. A. Shahardar, Towsief Ahmad Tantry, Masarat Nizam and Shoaib Ali Dar

June 2014

Co-culture: A great promising method in single cell protein production

The term single cell protein (SCP) refers to the dried microbial cells or total protein extracted from pure microbial culture (algae, bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts) which serves as food or/and feed supplements. Different substrate and fermentation optimizations are being carried out to maximize SCP production. However, little attention was given to coculturing. SCPs are produced better using coculture than...

Author(s): Asmamaw Tesfaw and Fassil Assefa

February 2014

DNA microarrays and their applications in medical microbiology

Rapid diagnosis and treatment of disease is often based on the identification and characterization of causative agents derived from phenotypic characteristics. This can be laborious and time consuming, often requiring many skilled personnel and a large amount of lab space. However, the introduction of nucleic acid amplification techniques into molecular biology has transformed the laboratory detection of pathogens. The...

Author(s): Chijioke A. Nsofor

October 2013

The large-scale use of feruloyl esterases in industry

Presently industrial enzyme companies sell enzymes for a wide variety of applications. The estimated value of world enzyme market is presently about US $ 4.3 billion and it has been forecasted to grow to almost US $ 5.1 billion by 2009. Detergents (37%), textiles (12%), starch (11%), baking (8%) and animal feed (6%) are the main industries; totally these industries use about 74% of industrially produced enzymes. Enzymes...

Author(s): Ahmed E Fazary and Yi-Hsu Ju

  • Article Number: 68CC9AE40231

October 2013

Programmed cell death or apoptosis: Do animals and plants share anything in common

Plants, animals and several unicellular eukaryotes use programmed cell death (PCD) for defense and developmental mechanisms. While cell death pathways in animals have been well characterized, relatively little is known about the molecular mechanism of such a strategy in plants. Although, very few regulatory proteins or protein domains have been identified as conserved across all eukaryotic PCD forms,...

Author(s): Nishawar Jan, Mahboob-ul-Hussain and Khurshid I. Andrabi 

  • Article Number: 4769BA440233

October 2013

Genomic imprinting: A general overview

Usually, most of the genes are biallelically expressed but imprinted gene exhibit monoallelic expression based on their parental origin. Genomic imprinting exhibit differences in control between flowering plants and mammals, for instance, imprinted gene are specifically activated by demethylation, rather than targeted for silencing in plants and imprinted gene expression in plant which occur in endosperm. It also...

Author(s): Muniswamy K. and Thamodaran P.

October 2013

Molecular and biological techniques used in landfill investigations: A mini-review

The purpose of this research paper was to review the different molecular biology techniques that are used in landfill investigations. The methods discussed include polymerase chain reaction (PCR), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA). Operation of landfills as bioreactors is now becoming a common practice, which involves the identification of different...

Author(s): umphrey O. Zebulun, Hilary I. Inyang and Helene Hilger

April 2013

Advancements in the diagnosis of bacterial plant pathogens: An overview

The timely detection and appropriate identification of causal agents associated with disease of crop plants or seeds are considered to be the most important issue in formulating the management strategies for plant diseases. This is particularly important for plant diseases of a bacterial nature, where disease-free planting materials is the only effective way to restrict the disease. The detection of bacterial pathogens...

Author(s): Kalyan K. Mondal and V. Shanmugam

April 2013

Alkhumra virus: A zoonotic butcher in the Middle East? Concerns and consideration

New, emerging, and re-emerging infectious disease incidences have increased rapidly and frequently with significant human and financial costs.  Most of the viral infectious diseases are of zoonotic nature, and public awareness of the human health risks of infections have grown in recent years, since viral epidemics such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, West-Nile virus, and Ebola virus diseases have...

Author(s): Meerasahib Mohamed Fareez, Lubna Saeed Mahmood and Abdulbasit  I. I. Al-Sieni

October 2012

Archaebacterial ancestor of eukaryotes and mitochondriogenesis

Division of the ancestral prokaryotic genome into two circular double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules by genetic recombination, is a basis for the future separate evolution of the nuclear and mitochondrial gene compartment. This suggests monophyletic origin of both mitochondrion and nucleus. Presumed organism which genome undergoes genetic recombination has to be searched among an aerobic, oxygen...

Author(s): Milanko Stupar, Vitomir Vidović, Dragomir Lukač and Ljuba Štrbac

October 2012

Role of proteases in cancer: A review

Proteases in normal cells are important in carrying out biological processes. In living systems, a balance between proteases and their anti-proteases occur, and disturbance of balance leads to many diseases like cancer. Steps starting from tumor initiation, growth, metastasis and finally invasion into some other site involve all five classes of proteases: serine, cysteine, aspartate, threonine and matrix...

Author(s): Syed Rakashanda, Farukh Rana, Shaista Rafiq, Akbar Masood and Shajrul Amin

September 2012

Uses of mushrooms in bioremediation: A review

One of the major environmental problems facing the world today is the contamination of soil, water and air by toxic chemicals as a result of industrialization and extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Incineration is currently the most effective and common remediation practice but is costly in terms of money and energy used. A rapid cost effective and ecologically responsible method of clean-up is...

Author(s): Adenipekun C. O. and Lawal R.

June 2012

The role, isolation and identification of Vibrio species on the quality and safety of seafood

Seafoods in their natural environments are associated with a variety of microorganisms. Fish shelf life reduction results from microbial metabolism, mainly by Gram negative bacteria that produce chemical compounds responsible for bad odour, texture and taste. Shelflife is estimated by performing total viable bacterial counts at ambient and refrigeration temperatures. The type and number of bacteria present on seafood...

Author(s): Shikongo-Nambabi M. N. N. N., Petrus N. P and M. B. Schneider

June 2012

Millet improvement through regeneration and transformation

Millets, comprising the small-seeded group of the Poaceae family, represent one of the major food- and feed-crops in the semi-arid tropical regions of Africa and Asia. Compared to major crops of the world, these indigenous crops possess a number of beneficial characteristics including tolerance to extreme climatic and soil conditions; hence, adapts to poor soil fertility and moisture deficient areas. Moreover, millets...

Author(s): Sonia Plaza-Wüthrich and Zerihun Tadele

June 2012

Starch phosphorylase: Biochemical and biotechnological perspectives

A dynamic mediatory role between starch synthesis and degradation has been ascribed to starch phosphorylase. However, plant starch phosphorylase is largely considered to be involved in phosphorolytic degradation of starch. It reversibly catalyzes the transfer of glucosyl units from glucose-1-phosphate to the non-reducing end of glucan chain with the release of inorganic phosphate. It is widely distributed in...

Author(s): Rachana Tiwari and Anil Kumar

April 2012

Therapeutic potential of antimicrobial peptides from insects

The first antimicrobial peptides were isolated from the cecropia moth Hyalophora cecropia in 1980. Since then a plethora of antimicrobial peptides have been isolated from other arthropods, invertebrates and chordates. With the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens and the promising activity of these peptides, attempts are being made to use these peptides as new antimicrobial agents. Other...

Author(s): Rodney Hull, Rodrick Katete and Monde Ntwasa

  • Article Number: 4C9671911938

March 2012

Homocysteine-A potent modulator

Homocysteine is an amino acid and is an intermediate metabolite of methionine metabolism. It is metabolized by two pathways, the trans-methylation and trans-sulphuration. These processes rely on an adequate supply of vitamin B12 and B6 and folic acid. Deficiency of vitamin B12, B6 and folic acid can build up homocysteine level in blood stream. High homocysteine levels has been implicated in a variety of...

Author(s): Janani Kumar, Sowmiya Jayaraman and Nandhitha Muralidharan

March 2012

Key aspects of the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in tissue engineering for in vitro skeletal muscle regeneration

Tissue engineering, directly associated with Biotechnology and Biomedical Sciences, is an emerging field of research and development. The main issue of tissue engineering is to precisely and safely regenerate or reconstruct injured tissues of skeletal muscle, bone, teeth, neural, cardiac, cartilage etc. One of the primary requirements for tissue engineering development is a constant source of supplementary stem cells...

Author(s): Biswadeep Chaudhuri and Krishna Pramanik

December 2011

Status of biotechnology in Eastern and Central Africa

This work examines trends of both conventional and modern biotechnologies in selected Eastern and Central African countries namely Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Burundi and Democratic Republic of Congo, with the aim of giving an up-to-date assessment of their national policies, institutional capacities, and the activities being carried out. Agricultural biotechnology seems to take the lead while...

Author(s): Godliving Y. S. Mtui

December 2011

Future challenges in environmental risk assessment of transgenic plants with abiotic stress tolerance

Environmental risk assessment of transgenic plants is a prerequisite to their release into the target environment for commercial use. Risk assessment of the first generation transgenic plants with simple monogenic traits has been carried out with principles and guidelines enlisted in the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. For more complex traits such as abiotic stress tolerance, there is a growing need to examine for...

Author(s): Mohammad Sayyar Khan,

November 2011

A new approach of abnormal apoptosis as a cause of autoimmunity and malignancy

Auto-reactive cells which escape from natural apoptosis represent a continuous threat of potential autoimmune response. Abnormal apoptosis can play a role in negative selection of B and T lymphocytes that escaped the self-reactive nature, and so, apoptosis could represent an additional source of auto-antibody. Increased activity of T cells (CD3+, CD4+, or Th1 helper)) will, at a high serum level, cause a high expression...

Author(s): Aurelian Udristioiu⊃, Radu G. Iliescu⊃, Lucian Udristioiu⊃ and  Manole Cojocaru⊃

  • Article Number: E470D7A11833

November 2011

Lignocellulosic ethanol production: Current practices and recent developments

Production of renewable fuels, especially bio-ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass, holds remarkable potential to meet the current energy demand as well as to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions for a sustainable environment. Present technologies to produce bioethanol largely depend on sugarcane and/or starch based grains and tubers (mainly corn, potatoes). This is partly due to ease of substrate handling and processing....

Author(s): Bishnu Joshi  Megh Raj Bhatt  Dinita Sharma  Jarina Joshi  Rajani Malla  and Lakshmaiah Sreerama

  • Article Number: 8D9C02C11840

September 2011

Integrating molecular tools with conventional breeding strategies for improving phosphorus acquisition by legume crops in acid soils of Sub-Saharan Africa

Leguminous crops are key components of low input agricultural cropping systems, and play an important role in ensuring food security in many societies in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, legume crop productivity in SSA is frequently limited by mineral nutrient deficiencies (particularly phosphorus, P). A common remedy for P deficiency is the application of P-fertilizers or in the case of low input cropping systems the...

Author(s): Maureen Fonji ATEMKENG, Teboh Jasper MUKI, Jong-Won PARK and John JIFON

  • Article Number: A65BB8911806

September 2011

Developmental competence of in vivo and in vitro matured oocytes: A review

The study of follicular dynamics has been particularly rapid in the last two decades. However,in vitro maturation and fertilization of oocytes results in reduced embryo production, which suggests that not all oocytes have the capacity to mature and to fertilize properly. The efficiency of bovine embryo production in vitro, measured as the blastocyst rate, obtained from oocytes matured and fertilized in...

Author(s): Blanco M. R, Demyda S., Moreno Millán  M. and  Genero E

  • Article Number: F83296011816

July 2011

Telomerase: Roles in aging, cancer and hereditary disease

Telomerase is an enzyme that adds DNA sequence repeats ("TTAGGG" in all vertebrates) to the 3' end of DNA strands in the telomere regions, which are found at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. This region of repeated nucleotide repeats called telomeres contain condensed DNA material and prevents constant loss of important DNA from chromosome ends. As a result, every time the chromosome is copied only a...

Author(s): K. Sreenivasulu and M. Vijaya Lakshmi

  • Article Number: B3D69B911776

July 2011

Application of genomic technologies to the improvement of meat quality in farm animals

Meat quality is one of the most important economic traits in farm animals. The goal of genomics technologies is to provide genetic map and other resources to identify loci responsible for genetic variation in quantitative traits such as meat quality. Candidate gene and genome scanning are two main techniques for this purpose. In the past decade, advances in molecular genetics led to identify these genes and markers...

Author(s): Hamed Kharrati Koopaei and Ali Esmailizadeh Koshkoiyeh

  • Article Number: A81F9B311785

July 2011

Investigating the potential role of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)

PDGF is a growth factor and is extensively involved in multi-dimensional cellular dynamics. It switches on a plethora of molecules other than its classical pathway. It is engaged in various transitions of development however if the unleashed potentials lead astray it brings forth tumorigenesis. Conventionally, it has been assumed that the components of this signaling pathway show fidelity and act with a high degree of...

Author(s): Syed Shoaib Ahmed, Atif Adnan, Anam Batool, Ziaur Rahman, Muhammad Ilyas and Syyada Samra Jafri

  • Article Number: 275194F11793

May 2011

The role of biotechnology towards attainment of a sustainable and safe global agriculture and environment – A review

Biotechnology is producing great opportunities for the increase in global agricultural production and for protecting the environment through the reduced use of agro-chemicals like pesticides, fertilizers and rodenticides. Biotechnology has played an important role towards the attainment of environmental sustainability by using environment-friendly crops such as insect-resistant, herbicide-tolerant species and crops that...

Author(s): Soetan, K. O.

  • Article Number: 5C4FBE611756

April 2011

In silico modeling in conjunction with natural products: Paving the way for rational drug-design

Genome sequencing projects has produced a vast wealth of data describing the protein coding regions of the genome under study. However, only a minority of the protein sequences identified has a clear sequence homology to a known protein. In such cases valuable three-dimensional models of the protein coding sequence can be constructed by homology modeling methods. Threading methods uses specialized schemes to relate...

Author(s): Shailza Singh and D. K. Sharma

  • Article Number: 085994B11700

April 2011

Toxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae: Classification, pathogenesis and virulence determinants

Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae are pathogenic bacteria commonly found in various contaminated sources and pose a major health risk, causing a range of human enteric infections and pandemics, especially among infants in Africa. Virulence and pathogenesis of these organisms is specifically based on the expression of certain virulence determinants, distinctive mucosal interactions as well as the...

Author(s): Ademola O. Olaniran, Kovashnee Naicker and Balakrishna Pillay

  • Article Number: CFA4DAC11711

March 2011

Pancratistatin, an apoptic inducer: New horizon for targeted therapy in cancer

Cancer is a major public health problem worldwide and considered as the most dangerous disease and deaths are countable. Current cancer therapy does not target the specific target that causes the cancer and this leads to serious side effects which can be fatal. Targeted therapy is a new horizon for treating cancer at the specified sites with least side effects and more effective than the chemotherapy and other...

Author(s): Rajesh M. Patel and Rajesh N. Prajapati

  • Article Number: D7775E611654

March 2011

Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, S. K. Patel College of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Ganpat University, Kherva-382711, Gujarat, India.

Phytases belong to the class of phosphatases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of phytic acid to inorganic phosphate and myo-inositol phosphate derivatives. The enzyme has potential applications in food and feed industries for ameliorating digestibility and assimilation of nutrients of foods and feeds by mitigating the anti-nutritional effects of phytic acid. Phytases have been shown to be useful in improving growth...

Author(s): Bijender Singh, Gotthard Kunze and T. Satyanarayana

  • Article Number: 00AA8FB11670

February 2011

Emerging infections and bioterrorism emergencies: Where do we go from here?

Emerging infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorism attacks warrant urgent public health and medical responses. Response plans for these events may include use of medications and vaccines for which the effects on pregnant women and fetuses are unknown. Recent experiences with outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome, monkey pox and anthrax, as well as response planning for bioterrorism and pandemic influenza,...

Author(s): I. O. Okonko, M. O. Ojezele, E. T. Babalola, J. C. Nwanze, O. K. Mejehaand T. A. Amusan

  • Article Number: 534A2E640309

February 2011

Recent molecular advances to combat abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants

Abiotic stress negatively influences survival, biomass production and crop yield. Being multigenic as well as a quantitative trait, it is a challenge to understand the molecular basis of abiotic stress tolerance and to manipulate it as compared to biotic stresses. Abiotic stresses including drought are serious threats to the sustainability of crop yields accounting for more crop productivity losses than any other factor...

Author(s): J. Amudha and G. Balasubramani

  • Article Number: 5CD67DC40310

January 2011

A review of the pharmacological aspects of Solanum nigrum Linn.

This article reviews, bridges the gap between the folkloric use of Solanum nigrumlinn. (Sn) and the results of evidence based experiments. Although Sn is a rich source of one of plants most dreaded toxins solanine, it has appreciably demonstrated its potential as a reservoir of antioxidants having hepatoprotective, anti-tumor, cytostatic, anti-convulsant, anti-ulcerogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. The review...

Author(s): F. O. Atanu, U. G. Ebiloma and E. I. Ajayi

  • Article Number: 0E4825611574

January 2011

Bioconversion of pentose sugars into ethanol: A review and future directions

Hemicelluloses, the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature, are well suited for ethanol production due to their enormous availability, low cost and environmental benign process. The major fraction in hemeicelluloses is pentosans and the conversion of pentosans to ethanol is problematic. To get the process economized, the conversion of hemicellulose to ethanol with a satisfactory yield is necessary. In recent...

Author(s): Anuj Kumar Chandel, Gajula Chandrasekhar, Konakalla Radhika, Rudravaram Ravinder and Pogaku Ravindra

  • Article Number: 56B549611591

January 2011

Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease

Based on prospective and experimental data, mild to moderate elevation of homocysteine is a stabilized and independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The hyperhomocystenemia is a consequence of inhibition of transsulphuration pathway or inhibition of remethylation pathway of homocysteine metabolism, transsulphuration is mediated by CBS and remethylation is mediated directly by MS and indirectly by MTHFR. The...

Author(s): Dwivedi M. K., Tripathi A. K., Shukla S.,  Khan S. and Chauhan U. K.

  • Article Number: A757F1411746

December 2010

Cancer investigation: A genome perspective

The completion of human genome project has evolved many techniques used to locate the human genes. The focus is mainly on the genome, transcriptome or proteome to recognise distinctive characteristics that may explain the basis of human disease and potentially envisage prospect outcomes. Cancer is one of the recent deadliest diseases. Various cancer types root problems in the generalised dealing. The objective of these...

Author(s): Varsale A. R., Wadnerkar A. S. and Mandage R. H.

  • Article Number: F8CA7CC11552

October 2010

Engineered pathogenesis related and antimicrobial proteins weaponry against Phytopthora infestans in potato plant: A review

Phytopthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, causal organism of late blight disease is referred to as the most destructive specific pathogen of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Casualties usually go beyond mere plant destruction, due to its flaring ability to also demolish scientific concerted efforts in establishing novel combat techniques. With high capacity to overcome control measures, it stands at par, and...

Author(s): Bengyella Louis and Pranab Roy

  • Article Number: D52ACBE11468

October 2010

Probing yeast for insights into neurodegenerative disease: ORFeome-wide screens for genetic modifiers of α-synuclein cytotoxicity

Several of the most devastating neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, belong to the synucleinopathy class of common neural disorders. A synucleinopathy is characterized by brain tissue plaques formed by the aggregation of misfolded protein―mainly misfolded α-synuclein. α-Synuclein has been extensively studied as the primary protein aggregate in brains...

Author(s): Richard A. Manfready,

  • Article Number: CFB70DD11483

September 2010

High fructose corn syrup: Production, uses and public health concerns

High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a liquid alternative sweetener to sucrose that is made from corn, the “king of crops” using chemicals (caustic soda, hydrochloric acid) and enzymes (α-amylase and glucoamylase) to hydrolyze corn starch to corn syrup containing mostly glucose and a third enzyme (glucose isomerase) to isomerize glucose in corn syrup to fructose to yield HFCS products classified...

Author(s): Kay Parker, Michelle Salas and Veronica C. Nwosu

  • Article Number: 41CAC0411547

August 2010

Swine flu: A threat to human health

Influenza virus has caused major global epidemics since 1918. Although this commonly circulating viral strain is not virulent enough to cause mortality, but the re-assortment of viral genome to mutate at a very high rate can lead to the emergence of a highly virulent strain that may lead to next pandemics. Swine flu is an example of re-assortment of two viruses in pig causing thousands of deaths in the whole world...

Author(s): Syeda Samra Iqbal Jafri, Muhammad Ilyas and Muhammad Idrees

  • Article Number: 81DF8BB11382

August 2010

Gene pyramiding-A broad spectrum technique for developing durable stress resistance in crops

The development of molecular genetics and associated technology like MAS has led to the emergence of a new field in plant breeding-Gene pyramiding. Pyramiding entails stacking multiple genes leading to the simultaneous expression of more than one gene in a variety to develop durable resistance expression. Gene pyramiding is gaining considerable importance as it would improve the efficiency of plant breeding leading to...

Author(s): Raj Kumar Joshi and Sanghamitra Nayak

  • Article Number: 226183611416

April 2010

Kojic acid: Applications and development of fermentation process for production

Kojic acid, 5-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-g-pyrone, has many potential industrial applications. In this review, the properties and diverse applications of kojic acid in industries are described. The review also discusses the advance in kojic acid fermentation, focusing on the process development in micro-organisms and strain selection, medium and culture optimization, as well as fermentation modes for commercially viable...

Author(s): Rosfarizan Mohamad, Mohd Shamzi Mohamed, Nurashikin Suhaili,Madihah Mohd Salleh  and Arbakariya B. Ariff 

  • Article Number: 2C868E111306

April 2010

Transition metal complexes as potential therapeutic agents

Transition metals have important place within medicinal biochemistry. Research has shown significant progress in utilization of transition metal complexes as drugs to treat several human diseases like carcinomas, lymphomas, infection control, anti-inflammatory, diabetes, and neurological disorders. Transition metals exhibit different oxidation states and can interact with number of negatively charged molecules. This...

Author(s): Shazia Rafique, Muhammad Idrees, Anwar Nasim, Haji Akbar and Amin Athar

  • Article Number: 2B9418F11324

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