Various mutation assisted drug resistance evolved in Plasmodium falciparum strains and insecticide resistance to female Anopheles mosquito account for major biomedical catastrophes standing against all efforts to eradicate malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria is endemic in more than 100 countries and by far the most costly disease in terms of human health causing major losses among many African nations including Nigeria. The fight against malaria is failing and DNA microarray analysis need to keep up the pace in order to unravel the evolving parasite’s gene expression profile which is a pointer to monitoring the genes involved in malaria’s infective metabolic pathway. Huge data is generated and biologists have the challenge of extracting useful information from volumes of microarray data. Expression levels for tens of thousands of genes can be simultaneously measured in a single hybridization experiment and are collectively called a “gene expression profile”. Gene expression profiles can also be used in studying various state of malaria development in which expression profiles of different disease states at different time points are collected and compared to each other to establish a classifying scheme for purposes such as diagnosis and treatments with adequate drugs. This paper examines microarray technology and its application as supported by appropriate software tools from experimental set-up to the level of data analysis. An assessment of the level of microarray technology in Africa, its availability and techniques required for malaria eradication and effective healthcare in Nigeria and Africa in general were also underscored.
Key words: Malaria, microarray, Gene expression profile, Plasmodium falciparum, RNA.
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