Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health
Subscribe to JVMAH
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - FE2CFC948307


Vol.6(11), pp. 268-279 , November 2014
DOI: 10.5897/JVMAH2014.0312
ISSN: 2141-2529



Full Length Research Paper

Animal health constraints in dairy goats kept under smallholder farming systems in Kongwa and Mvomero Districts, Tanzania



Dismas Said Ngasa Shija
  • Dismas Said Ngasa Shija
  • Department of Animal Science and Production, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3004, Morogoro, Tanzania.
  • Google Scholar
Lughano Jeremy Moses Kusiluka
  • Lughano Jeremy Moses Kusiluka
  • Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 447, Arusha, Tanzania.
  • Google Scholar
Sebastian Wilson Chenyambuga*
  • Sebastian Wilson Chenyambuga*
  • Department of Animal Science and Production, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3004, Morogoro, Tanzania.
  • Google Scholar
Deogratias Shayo
  • Deogratias Shayo
  • Department of Animal Science and Production, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3004, Morogoro, Tanzania.
  • Google Scholar
Faustin Paul Lekule
  • Faustin Paul Lekule
  • Department of Animal Science and Production, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3004, Morogoro, Tanzania.
  • Google Scholar







 Accepted: 07 July 2014  Published: 30 November 2014

Copyright © 2014 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


 

This study was conducted to determine animal health constraints for dairy goats kept by small-scale farmers in Kongwa and Mvomero districts, Tanzania. A total of 129 dairy goats belonging to 108 farmers were screened for gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection, coccidiosis, haemoparasites, brucellosis and contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) over a period of 11 months. Other clinical diseases and mortalities were recorded. The goats used were Norwegian crosses and Toggenburg crosses. The mean prevalence of GIN infection and coccidiosis in all goats were 54.8 and 57.4%, respectively. Prevalence of GIN infection was higher (P ≤ 0.05) during the rainy months than in the dry months, but the prevalence of coccidiosis did not differ (P > 0.05) between the dry and rainy seasons. The EPG in goats did not differ (P > 0.05) between Kongwa (169.79 ± 0.03 EPG) and Mvomero (171.51 ± 0.04 EPG) districts, but the OPG differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) with values of 793.15 ± 0.04 (Kongwa) and 364.02 ± 0.05 (Mvomero). The prevalence of CCPP in the goats was 26.4%. Other clinical diseases included respiratory diseases, infectious keratoconjunctivitis and orf (scabby lesions around mouth and nostrils). Both tests for haemoparasites and brucellosis indicated negative results for all goats tested. Mortality rate during the study period was 15.5% and the major causes of deaths were respiratory diseases, bloat and food poisoning. In conclusion, gastrointestinal nematodes are prevalent in both districts, but the burdens are relatively low to justify mass treatment. The Norwegian goats are more susceptible to GIN infection and coccidiosis compared to Toggenburg goats.

 

Key words: Coccidiosis, diseases, gastrointestinal nematodes, mortality, Norwegian goats, Toggenburg goats.

 

Abo-Shehada MN, Abo-Farieha HA (2003). Prevalence of Eimeria spe-cies among goats in northern Jordan. Small Rum. Res. 49:109 - 113.
Crossref
 
Akhtar MS, Iqbal Z, Khan MN, Muhammad L (2000). Anthelmintic activity of medicinal plants with particular reference to their use in animals in the Indo–Pakistan sub-continent – A Review. Small Rumin. Res. 38: 99-107.
Crossref
 
Alton GG, Jones LM, Angus RD, Verger JM (1988). Techniques for the Brucellosis Laboratory. Paris, INRA Ed.
 
Assoku RKG (1981). Studies of parasitic helminths of sheep and goats in Ghana. Bull. Anim. Health Prod. Afr. 29:1-10.
Pubmed
 
Barger IA, Siale K, Banks DJD, Le Jambre LF (1994). Rotational grazing for control of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats in a wet tropical environment. Vet. Parasitol. 53:109-116.
Crossref
 
Bekele T, Woldeab T, Lahlou-Kassi A, Sherington J (1992). Factors affecting morbidity and mortality on-farm and on-station in the Ethiopian highland sheep. Acta Trop. 52:99-109.
Crossref
 
Costa CAF, Vieira LdaS, Berne MEA, Silva MUD, Guidoni AL, Figueiredo EAP (2000). Variability of resistance in goats infected with Haemonchus contortus in Brazil. Vet. Parasitol. 88:153-158.
Crossref
 
Dimander SO, Höglund J, Spörndly E, Waller PJ (2000). The impact of internal parasites on the productivity of young cattle organically reared on semi-natural pastures in Sweden. Vet. Parasitol. 90: 271– 284.
Crossref
 
Duszynski DW, Wilber PG (1997). A guide for the preparation of species descriptions in the Eimeriidae. J. Parasitol. 83:333-336.
Crossref
 
Eshetu L, Yigezu Y, Asfaw W (2007). A study on Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in goats at an export oriented abattoir, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 39:427-432.
Crossref
 
Fabiyi JP (1987). Production losses and control of helminths in ruminants of tropical regions. Int. J. Parasitol. 17:435- 540.
Crossref
 
Foreyt WJ (2001). Veterinary Parasitology Reference Manual. Blackwell Publishers, Iowa, USA.
 
Githiori JB, Athanasiadou S, Thamsborg SM (2006). Use of plants in novel approaches for control of gastrointestinal helminths in livestock with emphasis on small ruminants. Vet. Parasitol. 139:308-320.
Crossref
 
Hansen J, Perry B (1994). The Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Control of Helminth Parasites of Ruminants, 2nd Edition. Nairobi, Kenya; ILRAD.
 
Kambarage DM, Kimera SI, Kusiluka LJM, Mtambo MMA (1996). Pre-valence of Eimeria and Cryptosporidium oocysts in cattle, sheep and goats in Morogoro region, Tanzania. J. Appl. Anim. Res. 9:73- 78.
Crossref
 
Kanyari PWN (1993). The relationship between coccidial and helminth infections in sheep and goats in Kenya. Vet. Parasitol. 51:137-141.
Crossref
 
Kanyari PWN, Kagira JM, Mhoma RJ (2009). Prevalence and intensity of endoparasites in small ruminants kept by farmers in Kisumu Municipality, Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development 21(11), Article #202. Available at: http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd21/11/kany21202.htm
 
Kanyari PWN, Kagira JM, Mhoma JRL (2010). Prevalence of endoparasites in cattle within urban and peri-urban areas of Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya with special reference to zoonotic potential. Sci. Parasitol. 11(4):171-178.
 
Karimuribo ED, Sayalel K, Beda E, Short N, Wambura P, Mboera LG (2012). Towards One Health disease surveillance: The Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance approach. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 79(2):454.
Crossref
 
Karimuribo E, Wambura P, Mounier-Jack S, Sonoiya S, Short N, Aanensen D (2011). Contrasting features and opportunities for "One Health" infectious disease surveillance system in Tanzania. EcoHealth 7:49.
 
Kusiluka LJM (1995). Management Systems and Health Problems of Goats in Morogoro District, Tanzania. MPhil Thesis. The University of Edinburgh, UK.
 
Kusiluka LJM (2002). A review of Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in Tanzania and potential for spread to Southern Africa. Zimbabwe Vet. J. 33: 101 - 107.
 
Kusiluka LJM, Kambarage DM (1996). A Handbook of Diseases of Small Ruminants in Sub-Saharan Africa. ODA, London & VETAID, Edinburgh, UK.
 
Kusiluka LJM, Kambarage DM, Harrison LJS, Matthewman RW, Daborn CJ (1996). Gastrointestinal helminths of goats and sheep in Tanzania. Tanzania Vet. J. 16: 53-58.
 
Kusiluka LJM, Kambarage DM, Harrison LJS, Matthewman RW, Daborn CJ (1998). Prevalence and seasonal patterns of coccidial infections in two ecoclimatic areas in Morogoro, Tanzan. Small Rum. Res. 30: 85 - 91.
Crossref
 
Kusiluka LJM, Kambarage DM, Harrison LJS, Matthewman RW, Daborn CJ (1999). Gastrointestinal nematodosis in goats kept under the tethering, stall-feeding and pastoral management systems in two ecoclimatic areas in Morogoro District, Tanzania. Tanzania Vet. J. 19: 6 - 15.
 
Kusiluka LJM, Kimaryo SJ, Nsengwa G, Kazwala RR, Kambarage DM (2007). Serological and microbiological studies of contagious caprine Pleuropneumonia in selected districts of Tanzania. Bull. Anim. Health. Prod. Africa 55:88-95.
 
Magona JW, Musisi G (2002). Influence of age, grazing system, season and agroclimatic zone on the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal strongylosis in Ugandan goats. Small Rumin. Res. 44:187-192.
Crossref
 
Mahusoon MM, Perera ANF, Perera ERK, Perera KA (2004). Effect of molybdenum supplementation on circulating mineral levels, nematode infection and body weight in goats as related to season. Trop. Agric. Res. 16:128-136.
 
Matjila PT, Penzhorn BL (2003). Occurrence and diversity of bovine coccidia at three localities in South Africa. Vet. Parasitol. 104:93- 102.
Crossref
 
Mbuh JV, Ndamukong KJN, Ntonifor N, Nforlem GF (2008). Parasites of sheep and goats and their prevalence in Bokova, a rural area of Buea Sub Division, Cameroon. Vet. Parasitol. 156:350-352.
Crossref
 
MLD (2006). National Livestock Policy, United Republic of Tanzania. Ministry of Livestock Development, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. P 43.
 
Msami HM, Kapanga AM, Bolske G, Kimaro RT, Mundogo J, Mbise A (1998). Occurence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in Tanzania. Tanzan. Vet. J. 18: 285-297.
 
Mtenga LA, Kusiluka LJM (1997). Small ruminant production and health in Tanzania. In: Proceedings of the Workshop to mark 20 years of the Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine Degree Programme (1976-1996) held in Morogoro, 13-14 May. pp 148-169.
 
Ng'ang'a CJ, Maingi N, Kanyari PWN, Munyua WK (2004). Development, survival and availability of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep on pastures in a semi-arid area of Kajiado District of Kenya. Vet. Res. Commun. 28:491-501.
Crossref
 
Noah EY, Kusiluka LJM, Wambura P, Kimera SI (2011). Field isolation of Mycoplasma capripneumoniae in central zone of Tanzania. Int. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 3(6):434 -442.
 
Nwosu CO, Madu PP, Richards WS (2007). Prevalence and seasonal changes in the population of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants in the semi-arid zone of north-eastern Nigeria. Vet. Parasitol. 144:118-124.
Crossref
 
Odoi A, Gathuma JM, Gachuiri CK , Omore A (2007). Risk factors of gastrointestinal nematode parasite infections in small ruminants kept in smallholder mixed farms in Kenya. BMC Vet. Res. 3:6
Crossref
 
Quinn PJ, Carter ME, Markey B, Carter GR (1994). Bacterial pathogens: microscopy, culture and identification. In: Clinical Veterinary Microbiology. Wolfe Publishing, Mosby-Year Book Europe Limited. pp 21-30.
 
Regassa F, Sori T, Dhuguma R, Kiros Y (2006). Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Ruminants in Western Oromia, Ethiopia. Int. J. Appl. Res. Vet. Med. 4:51-57.
 
Richard S, Cabaret J, Cabourg C (1990). Genetic and environmental factors associated with nematode infection of dairy goats in North-western France. Vet. Parasitol. 36:237-243.
Crossref
 
Robinson A (2003). Guidelines for coordinated human and animal brucellosis surveillance. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No.156.
 
Sanyal PK (1998). Integrated gastrointestinal parasite management in dairy animals in Gujarat by self medication. J. Vet. Parasitol. 12:17- 20.
 
SAS (2009). SAS/STAT 9.2 user's guide, second edition. SAS Institute Inc., North Carolina, USA.
 
Sindato C, Karimuribo E, Mboera LEG (2011). The epidemiology and socio-economic impact of rift valley fever epidemics in Tanzania: a review. Tanzan. J. Health Res. 13(Suppl1):1-16.
 
Singla LD (1995). A note on sub-clinical gastro-intestinal parasitism in sheep and goats in Ludhiana and Faridkot districts of Punjab. Indian Vet. Med. J. 19: 61-62
 
Soulsby EJL (1982). Helminths, Arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, USA.
 
Wadhawa A, Tanwar RK, Singla LD, Eda S, Kumar N, Kumar Y (2011). Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes in cattle and buffaloes in Bikaner, Rajasthan, India. Vet. World 4(9):417-419.
Crossref
 
Swai ES, Neselle MO (2010). Using participatory epidemiology tools to investigate Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Maasai Flocks, Northern Tanzania. Int. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 2(4):141-147.
 
Swai ES, Schoonman L (2009). Prevalence of Rift Valley Fever immunoglobulin G antibody in various occupational groups before the 2007 outbreak in Tanzania. Vector-borne Zoonotic Dis. 9: 579-582.
Crossref
 
Thiaucourt F, Bolske G, Libeau G, Le Goff C, Lefevre PC (1994). The use of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). Vet. Microbiol. 41:191-203.
Crossref
 
Uhlinger CA (1991). Equine small strongyles: epidemiology, pathology and control. Compend. Contin Educ. Pract. Vet. 13:332-338.
 
URT (2012). United Republic of Tanzania - National sample census of agriculture 2007/2008. Smallholder agriculture volume III – livestock sector national report. Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development, the National Bureau of Statistics, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and the Office of the Chief Government Statistician, Zanzibar. P 176.
 
Valentine BA, Cebra CK, Taylor GH (2007). Fatal gastrointestinal parasitism in goats: 31 cases (2001–2006). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 231:1098-1103.
Crossref
 
Wadhwa A, Tanwar RK, Singla LD, Eda S, Kumar N, Kumar Y (2011). Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes in Cattle and buffaloes in Bikaner, Rajasthan, India. Vet. World 4:417-419.
Crossref
 
Waller PJ (2004). Management and control of nematode parasites of small ruminants in the face of total anthelmintic failure. Trop. Biomed. 21: 7-13.
Pubmed

 


APA Shija, D.S.N., Kusiluka, L.J.M., Chenyambuga, S.W., Shayo, D., & Lekule, F.P. (2014). Animal health constraints in dairy goats kept under smallholder farming systems in Kongwa and Mvomero Districts, Tanzania. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, 6(11), 268-279.
Chicago Dismas Said Ngasa Shija, Lughano Jeremy Moses Kusiluka, Sebastian Wilson Chenyambuga, Deogratias Shayo and Faustin Paul Lekule. "Animal health constraints in dairy goats kept under smallholder farming systems in Kongwa and Mvomero Districts, Tanzania." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health 6, no. 11 (2014): 268-279.
MLA Dismas Said Ngasa Shija, et al. "Animal health constraints in dairy goats kept under smallholder farming systems in Kongwa and Mvomero Districts, Tanzania." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health 6.11 (2014): 268-279.
   
DOI 10.5897/JVMAH2014.0312
URL http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/JVMAH/article-abstract/FE2CFC948307

Subscription Form