Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology
Subscribe to JPVB
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - EEF18CE67050


Vol.10(1), pp. 1-7 , January 2018
DOI: 10.5897/JPVB2017.0296
ISSN: 2141-2510



Full Length Research Paper

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in non-human primates at a primate center at Franceville, Gabon



Jean Paul Akue
  • Jean Paul Akue
  • Departement de Parasitologie Médicales (UPARAM), Centre International de recherches Medicales de Franceville (CIRMF), Franceville Gabon.
  • Google Scholar
Natacha Efoua Tomo
  • Natacha Efoua Tomo
  • Institut de Recherches Agronomiques et forestières (IRAF/CENAREST), Gabon.
  • Google Scholar
Julie Badiambile
  • Julie Badiambile
  • Departement de Zootechnologie, institut National Supérieur d'Agronomie et de Biotechnologie (INSAB), USTM, Franceville, Gabon.
  • Google Scholar
Hubert Moukana
  • Hubert Moukana
  • Departement de Parasitologie Médicales (UPARAM), Centre International de recherches Medicales de Franceville (CIRMF), Franceville Gabon.
  • Google Scholar
Roger Antoine Mbou-Mountsimbi
  • Roger Antoine Mbou-Mountsimbi
  • Departement de Parasitologie Médicales (UPARAM), Centre International de recherches Medicales de Franceville (CIRMF), Franceville Gabon.
  • Google Scholar
Barthelemy Ngoubangoye
  • Barthelemy Ngoubangoye
  • Centre de Primatology (CDP) CIRMF, Franceville, Gabon.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 04 June 2017  Accepted: 30 August 2017  Published: 31 January 2018

Copyright © 2018 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


Toxoplasma gondii can cause fatal disease in both humans and non-human primates. Neospora caninum can also cause economic loss and disease to livestock. The distribution of antibodies against these parasites in non-human primates bred at the CIRMF Primate Center in Franceville, Gabon was determined. For their annual medical examination, T. gondii antibodies were identified using a modified agglutination test (MAT). Twenty-one percent were positive with antibody titers varying from 1:40 to 1:4000. Pan troglodytes (n=38; 42.1%) had the highest seroprevalence followed by Mandrillus sphinx (n=139; 16.5%). Only one Gorilla gorilla out of the four examined and one Cercopithecus solatus out of 12 were positive. At the same time, the general seroprevalence of N. caninum determined by competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was 68.67% in the four species tested. M. sphinx (n=139; 66.12%), P. troglodytes (n=38; 16.75%), C. solatus (n=12; 4.75%), and G. gorilla (n=4; 1.10%) had the highest prevalence. Co-infection was noted in 24.07% of the positive cases. This study suggests that these primates may constitute different reservoirs for T. gondii and N. caninum in the cystic form and high distribution of these parasites in this environment.

 

Key words: Toxoplasma gondii. Neospora caninum, antibodies, old world monkeys.

Basso W, More G, Quiroga MA, Balducchi D, Schares G, Venturini MC (2014). Neospora caninum is a cause of perinatal mortality in axis deer (Axis axis). Vet. Parasitol. 199:255-258.
Crossref

 

Bjerkås I, Mohn SF, Presthus J (1984). Unidentified cyst-forming sporozoon causing encephalomyelitis and myositis in dogs. Z. Parasitenk. 70:271-274.
Crossref

 
 

Carme B, Ajzenberg D, Demar M, Simon S, Dardé ML, Maubert B, de Thoisy B (2009). Outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in a captive breeding colony of squirrel monkeys. Vet. Parasitol.163:132-135.
Crossref

 
 

Carme B, Bissuel F, Ajzenberg D, Bouyne R, Aznar C, Demar M, Bichat S, Louvel D, Bourbigot AM, Peneau C, Neron P, Dardé ML (2002). Severe Acquired Toxoplasmosis in Immunocompetent Adult Patients in French Guiana. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:4037-4044.
Crossref

 
 

Darwich L, Cabezón O, Echeverria I, Pabón M, Marco I, Molina-López R, Alarcia-Alejos O, López-Gatius F, Lavín S, Almería S (2012). Presence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum DNA in the brain of wild birds. Vet. Parasitol. 183:377-381.
Crossref

 
 

Dietz HH, Henriksen P, Bille- Hansen V, Henriksen SA (1997). Toxoplasmosis in a colony of new world monkeys. Vet. Parasitol. l68:299-304.
Crossref

 
 

Draper CC, Killick-Kendrick R, Hutchison WM, Siim JC, Garnham PCC (1971). Experimental Toxoplasmosis in Chimpanzee. Br. Med. J. 2:375-378.
Crossref

 
 

Dubey JP (1986). Toxoplasmosis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 189:166-170.

 
 

Dubey JP, Carpenter JL, Speer CA, Topper MJ, Uggla A (1988). Newly recognized fatal protozoan disease of dogs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 192:1269-1285.

 
 

Dubey JP, Kramer PLW, Weisbrode SE (1985). Acute death associated with Toxoplasma gondii in Ring-tailed lemurs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 187:1272-1273.

 
 

Dubey JP, Lindsay DS (1996). A review of Neospora caninum and neosporosis.Vet. Parasitol. 1-59.
Crossref

 
 

Dubey JP, Schares G (2011). Neosporosis in animals the last five years. Vet. Parasitol. 180:90-108.
Crossref

 
 

Dubey JP, Schares G, Ortega-Mora LM (2007). Epidemiology and Control of Neosporosis and Neospora caninum. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 20(2):323-367
Crossref

 
 

Ekanayake DK, Rajapakse RPVJ, Dubey JP, Dittus WPJ (2004). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild Toque Macaques (Macaca Sinica) at Polonnaruwa,Sri Lanka. J. Parasitol. 90:870-871.
Crossref

 
 

Frenkel JK, Ruiz A, Chinchilla (1975). Soil survival of Toxoplasma oocysts in Kanas and Costa rica. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 24:439-443
Crossref

 
 

Garcia JL, Svoboda WK, Chryssafidis AL, Malanski L, Shiozawa M, Aguiar L, Teixeira GM, Ludwig G, Silva LR, Hilst C, Navarro IT (2005). Seroepidemiological survey for 244 toxoplasmosis in wild new world monkey (Cebus spp; AlouattaCaraya) at the paranà River basin, Paranà State, Brazil. Vet. Parasitol. pp. 307-311.
Crossref

 
 

Georges AJ, Leroy EM, Renaut AA, Benissan CT, Nabias RJ, Ngoc MT, Obiang PI, Lepage JP, Bertherat M, Bénoni EJ, Wickings DD, Amblard EJ, Lansoud-Soukate JP, Milleliri JM, Baize S, Georges-Courbot MC (1999). "Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreaks in Gabon, 1994–1997: Epidemiologic and Health Control Issues". J. Infect. Dis.179:S65-S75.
Crossref

 
 

Gharekhani J (2013). Serological study of Toxoplasma gondiiinfection in cattle from western Iran. Sci. Parasitol. 14:153-157.

 
 

Israelski DM, Remington JS (1988). Toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with AIDS.Infect. Dis. Clin. North. Am. 2:429-445.

 
 

King JS, Brown GK, Jenkins DJ, Ellis JT, Fleming PJ, Windsor PA, Slapeta J (2012). Oocysts and high seroprevalence of of Neospora caninum in dogs living in remote Aboriginal communities and wild dogs in Australia. Vet. Parasitol. 187:85-92.
Crossref

 
 

Lass A, Pletklewicz H, Szostakowska B, Myjak P (2012). The first detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in environmental fruits and vegetables samples. Euro. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 31:1101-1108.
Crossref

 
 

Mayberry C, Maloney SK, Mitchell J, Mawson PR, Bencini R (2014). Reproductive implications of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora in western grey kangaroos (Macropusfuliginosusocydromus). J. Wildl. Dis. 50:364-368.
Crossref

 
 

McCann CM, Andrew JV, Roland LS, Daniel T, Diana JL, Williams J, McGarry W, Richard P, Alexander JT (2008). Lack of Serologic Evidence of Neospora caninum in Humans, England. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:978-998.
Crossref

 
 

McConnell EE, Basson PA, Wolstenholme B, De Vos V, Malherbe HH (1973). Toxoplasmosis in free-ranging chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) from the Kruger National Park. Trans. R. Soc. Med. Hyg. 67:851-855.
Crossref

 
 

Meerburg BG, De Craeye S, Dierick K, Kijlstra A (2012). Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in brain tissue of feral rodents and insectivores caught on farms in the Netherlands. Vet. Parasitol. 184:317-320.
Crossref

 
 

Nicolle C, Manceaux L (1909). Sur un protozoaire nouveau du gondi. CR Acad. Sci. 148:369.

 
 

Pires JS, Carlos TR, Paulo R, Carvalho F, Alcides P, Walter F, Carlos W, Lopes G (2012). Infection by Toxoplasma gondii in Neotropical non-human primates. Pesq. Vet. Br. 32(10):1041-1044.
Crossref

 
 

Reid AJ, Vermont SJ, Cotton JA, Harris D, Hill-Cawthorne GA, Könen-Waisman S, Latham SM, Mourier T, Norton R, Quail MA, Sanders M (2012). Comparative genomics of the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum: Coccidia differing in host range and transmission strategy. PLoS pathogens 8(3):e1002567.
Crossref

 
 

Sahwi SY, Zaki MS, Haiba NY, Elsaid OK, Anwar MY, AbdRabbo SA (1995). Toxoplasmosis as a cause of repeated abortion. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 21(2):145-8.
Crossref

 
 

Salant H, Weingram T, Spira DT, Eizenberg T (2009). An outbreak of Toxoplasmosis amongst squirrel monkeys in an Israeli monkey colony. Vet. Parasitol. 159:24-29.
Crossref

 
 

Sedlàk K, Bàrtovà E (2006). Seroprevalences of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals. Vet. Parasitol.136:223-231.
Crossref

 
 

Setchell JME, Jean W, Leslie AK (2006). Life history in male Mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx): Physical development, dominance rank, and group association. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 131:498-510.
Crossref

 
 

Shannon LD, Scott AL, Mark K, David P, Jan S (2015). A review of neosporosis and pathologic findings of Neospora caninum infection in wildlife. Int. J. Parasitol. 4:216-238.

 
 

Uillians VO, Vanessa CSM, Clebson PA, Ivanildo AS, Amauri AW, Macêdon PA, Danielle AM, Fabiana LS Fábio dos SC, Alexandre DM (2013). Quails are resistant to infection with Neospora caninum tachyzoite. Vet. Parasitol. 198:209-213.
Crossref

 
 

Vaudaux JD, Muccioli C, James ER, Silveira C, Magargal SL, Jung C, Dubey JP, Jones JL, Doymaz MZ, Bruckner DA, Belfort R Jr, Holland GN, Grigg ME (2010). Identification of an atypical strain of Toxoplasma gondii as the cause of waterborne outbreak of toxoplasmosis in Santa Isabel do Ivai, Brazil. J. Infect. Dis. 202:1226-1233.
Crossref

 

 


APA Akue, J. P., Tomo, N. E., Badiambile, J., Moukana, H., Mbou-Mountsimbi, R. A., & Ngoubangoye, B. (2018). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in non-human primates at a primate center at Franceville, Gabon. Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology, 10(1), 1-7.
Chicago Jean Paul Akue, Natacha Efoua Tomo, Julie Badiambile, Hubert Moukana, Roger Antoine Mbou-Mountsimbi and Barthelemy Ngoubangoye. "Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in non-human primates at a primate center at Franceville, Gabon." Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology 10, no. 1 (2018): 1-7.
MLA Jean Paul Akue, et al. "Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in non-human primates at a primate center at Franceville, Gabon." Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology 10.1 (2018): 1-7.
   
DOI 10.5897/JPVB2017.0296
URL http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/JPVB/article-abstract/EEF18CE67050

Subscription Form