Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology
Subscribe to JPVB
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 7BEBD6365569


Vol.9(9), pp. 122-131 , September 2017
DOI: 10.5897/JPVB2015.0213
ISSN: 2141-2510



Review

A review on epidemiological distribution, impacts and integrated control approach of tsetse fly



Kebede Shanko Hordofa
  • Kebede Shanko Hordofa
  • College of Veterinary Medicine, Haramaya University, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar
Geremew Haile
  • Geremew Haile
  • College of Veterinary Medicine, Haramaya University, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 10 July 2015  Accepted: 04 August 2015  Published: 30 September 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


Tsetse flies are hematophagous insects of the genus Glossina that belong to the family Glossinidae. They are important because of their ability to spread disease among men and among domestic animals. Tsetse flies are strictly blood feeders, and in the act of piercing the skin and drawings blood, the flies transmit blood parasite trypanosomes to previously uninfected animals or man, causing the disease nagana, which is the most important economically devastating disease in tropical countries. The tsetse transmitted trypanosomosis, hinder the effort being made for food self sufficiently. In Ethiopia, about 240,000 km2 of the land is infested with tsetse flies and the main pathogenic trypanosomiasis that need tsetse as a biological vector are Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax  and  Trypanosoma brucei. In current Ethiopia, trypanosomes is one of the most important disease, which contributes to direct and indirect economic losses on livestock productivity, and the extent of the disease need tsetse fly control. Tsetse fly control has a great impact on both economic development in terms of its cost, and some control techniques are ecologically unacceptable. Nowadays, the cheapest and quickest way of controlling trypanosomosis is reducing the number of tsetse fly vectors than treating the infected animals.

Key words: Glossina, insecticide, Nagana, sterile insect techniques and tsetse fly.

Afewerk Y (1998). Field investigations on the appearance of Drug Resistant Populations of Trypanosomes in Metekel District, North- West Ethiopia, MSc thesis, Addis Ababa University and Freiect University of Berlin.

 

Aksoy S, Gibson WC, Lehane MJ (2003). Interactions between tsetse and trypanosomes with implications for the control of trypanosomiasis. Adv. Parasitol. 53:1-83.
Crossref

 
 

Aksoy S, Maudlin I, Dale C, Robinson A, O'Neill S (2001). Prospects for control of African trypanosomiasis by tsetse vector manipulation. Trends Parasitol. 17:29-35.
Crossref

 
 

Bourn D, Scott M (1978). The successful use of work oxen in agricultural development of tsetse infected land in Ethiopia. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 10:191-203.
Crossref

 
 

Brightwell R, Dransfield RD, Stevenson P, Williams B (1997). Changes over twelve years in population of Glossina pallidipes and G. longpennis (Diptera: Glossina) subject to varying trapping pressure at. Nkurman, South-West Kenya. Bull. Entomol. Res. 87:349-370.
Crossref

 
 

Brown D, Gilfoyle (2010). Healing the herds: disease livestock economies and the globalization of veterinary medicine. Athens, Ohio: Ohio university press. Buvuma Islands in Lake Victoria, Uganda. In: Tan KH. ed. Area-wide Control of fruit flies and other insect pests. Penerbit University Sains Malaysia.
Crossref

 
 

Dame DA, Schmidt CH (1998). The sterile male technique against tsetse flies (Glossina species). Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am. 16:24-30.
Crossref

 
 

FAO (2000). Impacts of trypanosomosis on African agriculture. Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations Rome, Italy.

 
 

FAO (2000). Training manual for tsetse control personnel vol.1. Food and agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

 
 

Feyesa R (2004). Current epidemiological situation of bovine trypanosomosis in Limushay tsetse control area of upper Didessa valley. Msc thesis, Faculty of veterinary medicine. Addis Ababa University, Debrezeit, Ethiopia.

 
 

Ford J, Katanondo JM (1971). Maps of tsetse flies (Glossina) distribution in Africa. OAU/ISCTRC report, 105.

 
 

Hao Z, Kasumba I, Lehane MJ, Gibson WC, Kwon J, Aksoy S (2001). Tsetse immune responses and trypanosome transmission: implications for the development of tsetse-based strategies to reduce trypanosomiasis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98:12648-12653.
Crossref

 
 

Hawse PE (2005). New technology for mating disruption and prospects for integration with SIT: in book of extended synopses. FAO/IAEA

 
 

Itard J (1989). Manual of tropical veterinary parasitrology C.B.A. International Wallingford. pp. 170-290.

 
 

Kahn CM (2005). The merk veterinary manual, 9th edition, Anniversary editionmerial. National publishing. Inc. phidadelphia. pp. 722-723.

 
 

Krafsur ES (2009). Tsetse flies: genetics, evolution and role as vectors. Infect. Genet. Evol. 9:124-141.
Crossref

 
 

Leak SGA (1999). Tsetse Biology and Ecology: Their Role in the Epidemiology and control of Trypanosomosis. CABI publishing in association with the ILRI. pp. 152-210.

 
 

Leak SGA, Mulatu W, Rowlands GJ, d'Ieteren GDM (1995). A trial of a cypermethrin pour-on insecticide to control G. pallidipes, G. fuscipes and G. morsitans submorsitans (Diptera Glossinidae) in South West Ethiopia. Bull. Entomol. Res. 85:241-251.
Crossref

 
 

Maudlin I (2006). African trypanosomosis. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 8:679-708.
Crossref

 
 

Meberate A, Menjeta, Vreysen MJB, Bencha B, Woldyes G, Bekele K, Aboset G (1999). The distribution and relative abundance of tsetse flies in the Southern Rift valley of Ethiopia. ISCTRS. 25th meeting, Sones, K.R. (ed). OAU/SCTRS publication No. 120:202-213.

 
 

Mehta K, Parker AG (2006). Sterile insect techniques: dose optimization, dosimetry and irradiation for improved sterile insect quality. Florida entomologists 89: (inpress).

 
 

Msang S (1999). Distribution density and infection rates of tsetse flies in selected sites of Southern Rift valley of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa University and Freie universtat, Berlin Msc thesis.

 
 

NTTICC (1996). Annual Report, Ministry of Agriculture, National Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Investigation and Control Center Bedelle, Illubabor, Ethiopia. P 29.

 
 

Radostitis OM, Gay CC, Hinchcliff KW, Constable PD (2007). Veterinary medicine. A text book of the disease of cattle, horse, sheep, pigs and goats, 10th edition. Saunders Elsevier, Edinburgh. P 1534.

 
 

Robertson AG (1991). The feeding habit of tsetse flies and their relevance to some tsetse control measures. Smithersia.

 
 

Smyth JD (2005). Introduction to animal parasitology, 3rd edition. Cambridge university press. pp. 63-72.

 
 

Taylor MA, Coop RL, Wall RL (2007). Veterinary parasitology, 3rd edition. Blackwell publishing. pp. 750-752.

 
 

Tewelde N (2001). Study on the occurrence of drug resistant trypanosomes in cattle in the farming in tsetse control areas (FITCA) Project in western Ethiopia. Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ethiopia MSc Thesis.

 
 

Urquhart GM, Armour J, Dunkan JL, Dunn AM, Jenning FW (1996). Veterinary Parasitology 2nd edition, Black well science.

 
 

Vale GM, Mutica G, Lovemore DF (1999). Insecticide treated cattle for controlling tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossina). Bull. Entomol. 89:569-578.

 
 

Vanden Bossche P, Shumba W, Njagu C, Shereni W (2001). The distribution and epidemiology of bovine trypanosomosis in Zimbabwe and an evaluation of the value of an Anti-trypanosomal antibody detection ELISA as a tool for monitoring the effectiveness of tsetse control operations. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 33(5):391-405.
Crossref

 
 

Welburn SC, Maudlin I (1999). Tsetse-trypanosome interactions: rites of passage. Parasitol. Today 15:399-403.
Crossref

 

 


APA Hordofa, K. S., & Haile, G. (2017). A review on epidemiological distribution, impacts and integrated control approach of tsetse fly. Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology, 9(9), 122-131.
Chicago Kebede Shanko Hordofa and Geremew Haile. "A review on epidemiological distribution, impacts and integrated control approach of tsetse fly." Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology 9, no. 9 (2017): 122-131.
MLA Kebede Shanko Hordofa and Geremew Haile. "A review on epidemiological distribution, impacts and integrated control approach of tsetse fly." Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology 9.9 (2017): 122-131.
   
DOI 10.5897/JPVB2015.0213
URL http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/JPVB/article-abstract/7BEBD6365569

Subscription Form

(default) 34 queries took 7452 ms
NrQueryErrorAffectedNum. rowsTook (ms)
1SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
2SELECT `Journal`.`id`, `Journal`.`journal_category_id`, `Journal`.`name`, `Journal`.`issn`, `Journal`.`abbrev`, `Journal`.`pub_abbrev`, `Journal`.`banner`, `Journal`.`colour`, `Journal`.`email`, `Journal`.`password`, `Journal`.`instruction_for_author_file`, `Journal`.`reviewers_guide_file`, `Journal`.`about_text`, `Journal`.`submit_manuscript`, `Journal`.`instructions_for_authors`, `Journal`.`pub_ethics`, `Journal`.`abstracting`, `Journal`.`call_for_papers`, `Journal`.`faculty_1000`, `Journal`.`editors`, `Journal`.`journal_issue_count`, `Journal`.`journ_handling_fee`, `Journal`.`founding_editor`, `Journal`.`founding_editor_address`, `Journal`.`created`, `Journal`.`modified`, `Journal`.`subdomain`, `JournalCategory`.`id`, `JournalCategory`.`name`, `JournalCategory`.`journal_count`, `JournalCategory`.`description`, `JournalCategory`.`created`, `JournalCategory`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`journals` AS `Journal` LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_categories` AS `JournalCategory` ON (`Journal`.`journal_category_id` = `JournalCategory`.`id`) WHERE `Journal`.`abbrev` = 'JPVB' LIMIT 1110
3SELECT `JournalIssue`.`id`, `JournalIssue`.`journal_id`, `JournalIssue`.`archive_id`, `JournalIssue`.`volume_number`, `JournalIssue`.`issue_number`, `JournalIssue`.`page_range`, `JournalIssue`.`edition`, `JournalIssue`.`month`, `JournalIssue`.`picture`, `JournalIssue`.`home_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`current_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`articles_count`, `JournalIssue`.`e-book`, `JournalIssue`.`issuu_embed`, `JournalIssue`.`subject`, `JournalIssue`.`created`, `JournalIssue`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_issues` AS `JournalIssue` WHERE `JournalIssue`.`journal_id` = (11)67670
4SELECT `JournalStat`.`id`, `JournalStat`.`journal_id`, `JournalStat`.`name`, `JournalStat`.`value`, `JournalStat`.`ref_link`, `JournalStat`.`description`, `JournalStat`.`created`, `JournalStat`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_stats` AS `JournalStat` WHERE `JournalStat`.`journal_id` = (11)000
5SELECT `JournalSection`.`id`, `JournalSection`.`name`, `JournalSection`.`journal_id`, `JournalSection`.`description`, `JournalSection`.`created`, `JournalSection`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_sections` AS `JournalSection` WHERE `JournalSection`.`journal_id` = (11)000
6SELECT `JournalStat`.`id`, `JournalStat`.`journal_id`, `JournalStat`.`name`, `JournalStat`.`value`, `JournalStat`.`ref_link`, `JournalStat`.`description`, `JournalStat`.`created`, `JournalStat`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_stats` AS `JournalStat` WHERE `JournalStat`.`journal_id` = 11 AND `JournalStat`.`value` <> ''000
7SELECT `JournalIssue`.`id`, `JournalIssue`.`journal_id`, `JournalIssue`.`archive_id`, `JournalIssue`.`volume_number`, `JournalIssue`.`issue_number`, `JournalIssue`.`page_range`, `JournalIssue`.`edition`, `JournalIssue`.`month`, `JournalIssue`.`picture`, `JournalIssue`.`home_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`current_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`articles_count`, `JournalIssue`.`e-book`, `JournalIssue`.`issuu_embed`, `JournalIssue`.`subject`, `JournalIssue`.`created`, `JournalIssue`.`modified`, `Journal`.`id`, `Journal`.`journal_category_id`, `Journal`.`name`, `Journal`.`issn`, `Journal`.`abbrev`, `Journal`.`pub_abbrev`, `Journal`.`banner`, `Journal`.`colour`, `Journal`.`email`, `Journal`.`password`, `Journal`.`instruction_for_author_file`, `Journal`.`reviewers_guide_file`, `Journal`.`about_text`, `Journal`.`submit_manuscript`, `Journal`.`instructions_for_authors`, `Journal`.`pub_ethics`, `Journal`.`abstracting`, `Journal`.`call_for_papers`, `Journal`.`faculty_1000`, `Journal`.`editors`, `Journal`.`journal_issue_count`, `Journal`.`journ_handling_fee`, `Journal`.`founding_editor`, `Journal`.`founding_editor_address`, `Journal`.`created`, `Journal`.`modified`, `Journal`.`subdomain`, `Archive`.`id`, `Archive`.`month`, `Archive`.`year`, `Archive`.`created`, `Archive`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_issues` AS `JournalIssue` LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`journals` AS `Journal` ON (`JournalIssue`.`journal_id` = `Journal`.`id`) LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`archives` AS `Archive` ON (`JournalIssue`.`archive_id` = `Archive`.`id`) WHERE `JournalIssue`.`journal_id` = 11 AND `JournalIssue`.`current_issue` = '1' ORDER BY `JournalIssue`.`created` DESC, `JournalIssue`.`month` DESC LIMIT 1110
8SELECT `Article`.`id`, `Article`.`journal_section_id`, `Article`.`journal_issue_id`, `Article`.`article_number`, `Article`.`article_type`, `Article`.`title`, `Article`.`accepted_date`, `Article`.`received_date`, `Article`.`abstract`, `Article`.`abbrev`, `Article`.`full_text`, `Article`.`pages`, `Article`.`doi`, `Article`.`authors_for_citation`, `Article`.`authors`, `Article`.`email`, `Article`.`phone`, `Article`.`address`, `Article`.`has_full_text`, `Article`.`has_reference`, `Article`.`pdf_file`, `Article`.`published`, `Article`.`published_date`, `Article`.`status`, `Article`.`author_id`, `Article`.`created`, `Article`.`modified`, `Article`.`read_count`, `Article`.`shared_count`, `Article`.`download_count`, `Article`.`other_links`, `Article`.`references` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`articles` AS `Article` WHERE `Article`.`journal_issue_id` = (9043)330
9SELECT COUNT(*) AS `count` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`articles` AS `Article` LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_issues` AS `JournalIssue` ON (`Article`.`journal_issue_id` = `JournalIssue`.`id`) LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_sections` AS `JournalSection` ON (`Article`.`journal_section_id` = `JournalSection`.`id`) LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`authors` AS `Author` ON (`Article`.`author_id` = `Author`.`id`) WHERE `JournalIssue`.`journal_id` =11 AND `Article`.`published` = 1110
10SELECT `Article`.`id`, `Article`.`journal_section_id`, `Article`.`journal_issue_id`, `Article`.`article_number`, `Article`.`article_type`, `Article`.`title`, `Article`.`accepted_date`, `Article`.`received_date`, `Article`.`abstract`, `Article`.`abbrev`, `Article`.`full_text`, `Article`.`pages`, `Article`.`doi`, `Article`.`authors_for_citation`, `Article`.`authors`, `Article`.`email`, `Article`.`phone`, `Article`.`address`, `Article`.`has_full_text`, `Article`.`has_reference`, `Article`.`pdf_file`, `Article`.`published`, `Article`.`published_date`, `Article`.`status`, `Article`.`author_id`, `Article`.`created`, `Article`.`modified`, `Article`.`read_count`, `Article`.`shared_count`, `Article`.`download_count`, `Article`.`other_links`, `Article`.`references`, `JournalIssue`.`id`, `JournalIssue`.`journal_id`, `JournalIssue`.`archive_id`, `JournalIssue`.`volume_number`, `JournalIssue`.`issue_number`, `JournalIssue`.`page_range`, `JournalIssue`.`edition`, `JournalIssue`.`month`, `JournalIssue`.`picture`, `JournalIssue`.`home_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`current_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`articles_count`, `JournalIssue`.`e-book`, `JournalIssue`.`issuu_embed`, `JournalIssue`.`subject`, `JournalIssue`.`created`, `JournalIssue`.`modified`, `JournalSection`.`id`, `JournalSection`.`name`, `JournalSection`.`journal_id`, `JournalSection`.`description`, `JournalSection`.`created`, `JournalSection`.`modified`, `Author`.`id`, `Author`.`surname`, `Author`.`other_names`, `Author`.`email`, `Author`.`phone`, `Author`.`sex`, `Author`.`institution`, `Author`.`address`, `Author`.`specialization`, `Author`.`country`, `Author`.`password`, `Author`.`last_login`, `Author`.`created`, `Author`.`title`, `Author`.`affiliation`, `Author`.`blacklist_id` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`articles` AS `Article` LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_issues` AS `JournalIssue` ON (`Article`.`journal_issue_id` = `JournalIssue`.`id`) LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_sections` AS `JournalSection` ON (`Article`.`journal_section_id` = `JournalSection`.`id`) LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`authors` AS `Author` ON (`Article`.`author_id` = `Author`.`id`) WHERE `Article`.`article_number` = '7BEBD6365569' LIMIT 11192
11SELECT `AbstractTranslation`.`id`, `AbstractTranslation`.`article_id`, `AbstractTranslation`.`language`, `AbstractTranslation`.`abstract`, `AbstractTranslation`.`published`, `AbstractTranslation`.`created`, `AbstractTranslation`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`abstract_translations` AS `AbstractTranslation` WHERE `AbstractTranslation`.`article_id` = (1009959897)000
12SELECT `ArticleTranslation`.`id`, `ArticleTranslation`.`article_id`, `ArticleTranslation`.`name`, `ArticleTranslation`.`url`, `ArticleTranslation`.`translator`, `ArticleTranslation`.`translator_url`, `ArticleTranslation`.`created`, `ArticleTranslation`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`article_translations` AS `ArticleTranslation` WHERE `ArticleTranslation`.`article_id` = (1009959897)000
13SELECT `ArticleAuthor`.`id`, `ArticleAuthor`.`name`, `ArticleAuthor`.`article_id`, `ArticleAuthor`.`email`, `ArticleAuthor`.`phone`, `ArticleAuthor`.`department`, `ArticleAuthor`.`affiliation`, `ArticleAuthor`.`country`, `ArticleAuthor`.`created`, `ArticleAuthor`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`article_authors` AS `ArticleAuthor` WHERE `ArticleAuthor`.`article_id` = (1009959897)220
14SELECT `ArticleReference`.`id`, `ArticleReference`.`title`, `ArticleReference`.`article_id`, `ArticleReference`.`authors`, `ArticleReference`.`year`, `ArticleReference`.`volume`, `ArticleReference`.`pages`, `ArticleReference`.`journal_title`, `ArticleReference`.`google_scholar`, `ArticleReference`.`pub_med`, `ArticleReference`.`url`, `ArticleReference`.`created`, `ArticleReference`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`article_references` AS `ArticleReference` WHERE `ArticleReference`.`article_id` = (1009959897)000
15SELECT `JournalIssue`.`id`, `JournalIssue`.`journal_id`, `JournalIssue`.`archive_id`, `JournalIssue`.`volume_number`, `JournalIssue`.`issue_number`, `JournalIssue`.`page_range`, `JournalIssue`.`edition`, `JournalIssue`.`month`, `JournalIssue`.`picture`, `JournalIssue`.`home_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`current_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`articles_count`, `JournalIssue`.`e-book`, `JournalIssue`.`issuu_embed`, `JournalIssue`.`subject`, `JournalIssue`.`created`, `JournalIssue`.`modified`, `Journal`.`id`, `Journal`.`journal_category_id`, `Journal`.`name`, `Journal`.`issn`, `Journal`.`abbrev`, `Journal`.`pub_abbrev`, `Journal`.`banner`, `Journal`.`colour`, `Journal`.`email`, `Journal`.`password`, `Journal`.`instruction_for_author_file`, `Journal`.`reviewers_guide_file`, `Journal`.`about_text`, `Journal`.`submit_manuscript`, `Journal`.`instructions_for_authors`, `Journal`.`pub_ethics`, `Journal`.`abstracting`, `Journal`.`call_for_papers`, `Journal`.`faculty_1000`, `Journal`.`editors`, `Journal`.`journal_issue_count`, `Journal`.`journ_handling_fee`, `Journal`.`founding_editor`, `Journal`.`founding_editor_address`, `Journal`.`created`, `Journal`.`modified`, `Journal`.`subdomain`, `Archive`.`id`, `Archive`.`month`, `Archive`.`year`, `Archive`.`created`, `Archive`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_issues` AS `JournalIssue` LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`journals` AS `Journal` ON (`JournalIssue`.`journal_id` = `Journal`.`id`) LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`archives` AS `Archive` ON (`JournalIssue`.`archive_id` = `Archive`.`id`) WHERE `JournalIssue`.`id` = 9043 LIMIT 1110
16SELECT `Article`.`id`, `Article`.`journal_section_id`, `Article`.`journal_issue_id`, `Article`.`article_number`, `Article`.`article_type`, `Article`.`title`, `Article`.`accepted_date`, `Article`.`received_date`, `Article`.`abstract`, `Article`.`abbrev`, `Article`.`full_text`, `Article`.`pages`, `Article`.`doi`, `Article`.`authors_for_citation`, `Article`.`authors`, `Article`.`email`, `Article`.`phone`, `Article`.`address`, `Article`.`has_full_text`, `Article`.`has_reference`, `Article`.`pdf_file`, `Article`.`published`, `Article`.`published_date`, `Article`.`status`, `Article`.`author_id`, `Article`.`created`, `Article`.`modified`, `Article`.`read_count`, `Article`.`shared_count`, `Article`.`download_count`, `Article`.`other_links`, `Article`.`references` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`articles` AS `Article` WHERE `Article`.`journal_issue_id` = (9043)330
17SELECT `ArticleMetric`.`id`, `ArticleMetric`.`article_id`, `ArticleMetric`.`ip`, `ArticleMetric`.`read_t`, `ArticleMetric`.`count`, `ArticleMetric`.`country`, `ArticleMetric`.`region`, `ArticleMetric`.`continent`, `ArticleMetric`.`created`, `ArticleMetric`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`article_metrics` AS `ArticleMetric` WHERE `ArticleMetric`.`article_id` = 1009959897 AND `ArticleMetric`.`read_t` = 'article-abstract' AND `ArticleMetric`.`ip` = '54.225.39.142' AND DATE_FORMAT(`ArticleMetric`.`created`, '%Y-%m-%d') = '2017-09-20' LIMIT 1003680
18BEGIN003680
19INSERT INTO `admin_academic_journals`.`article_metrics` (`read_t`, `count`, `article_id`, `ip`, `country`, `region`, `continent`, `modified`, `created`) VALUES ('article-abstract', 1, 1009959897, '54.225.39.142', 'United States', 'Virginia', 'North America', '2017-09-20 05:12:58', '2017-09-20 05:12:58')110
20COMMIT110
21SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
22SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
23SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
24SELECT `JournalIssue`.`id`, `JournalIssue`.`journal_id`, `JournalIssue`.`archive_id`, `JournalIssue`.`volume_number`, `JournalIssue`.`issue_number`, `JournalIssue`.`page_range`, `JournalIssue`.`edition`, `JournalIssue`.`month`, `JournalIssue`.`picture`, `JournalIssue`.`home_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`current_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`articles_count`, `JournalIssue`.`e-book`, `JournalIssue`.`issuu_embed`, `JournalIssue`.`subject`, `JournalIssue`.`created`, `JournalIssue`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_issues` AS `JournalIssue` WHERE `JournalIssue`.`id` = 9043 LIMIT 1110
25SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
26SELECT `JournalIssue`.`id`, `JournalIssue`.`journal_id`, `JournalIssue`.`archive_id`, `JournalIssue`.`volume_number`, `JournalIssue`.`issue_number`, `JournalIssue`.`page_range`, `JournalIssue`.`edition`, `JournalIssue`.`month`, `JournalIssue`.`picture`, `JournalIssue`.`home_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`current_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`articles_count`, `JournalIssue`.`e-book`, `JournalIssue`.`issuu_embed`, `JournalIssue`.`subject`, `JournalIssue`.`created`, `JournalIssue`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_issues` AS `JournalIssue` WHERE `JournalIssue`.`id` = 9043 LIMIT 1110
27SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
28SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
29SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
30SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
31SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
32SELECT `Logo`.`id`, `Logo`.`name`, `Logo`.`banner`, `Logo`.`description`, `Logo`.`created`, `Logo`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`logos` AS `Logo` WHERE `Logo`.`id` = 1 LIMIT 1110
33SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
34SELECT `Journal`.`id`, `Journal`.`journal_category_id`, `Journal`.`name`, `Journal`.`issn`, `Journal`.`abbrev`, `Journal`.`pub_abbrev`, `Journal`.`banner`, `Journal`.`colour`, `Journal`.`email`, `Journal`.`password`, `Journal`.`instruction_for_author_file`, `Journal`.`reviewers_guide_file`, `Journal`.`about_text`, `Journal`.`submit_manuscript`, `Journal`.`instructions_for_authors`, `Journal`.`pub_ethics`, `Journal`.`abstracting`, `Journal`.`call_for_papers`, `Journal`.`faculty_1000`, `Journal`.`editors`, `Journal`.`journal_issue_count`, `Journal`.`journ_handling_fee`, `Journal`.`founding_editor`, `Journal`.`founding_editor_address`, `Journal`.`created`, `Journal`.`modified`, `Journal`.`subdomain` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`journals` AS `Journal` WHERE `Journal`.`id` = 11 LIMIT 1110