Performance of a welding flux is decided by the physical and chemical properties of its constituents. The flux selected should show a good welding behavior and the required weld bead geometry. The mechanical properties of a joint are not only decided by its composition but these also depends on bead geometry, dimensions and physico-chemical properties of fluxes. These properties include surface tension, viscosity, heat capacity, thermal coefficients of expansion, grain size etc. These properties of fluxes primarily affect the flux behavior, bead shape and size, welding speed, current carrying capacity, protection of molten metal, arc stability, slag detachability, capillarity, surface tension and viscosity. Various constituents of a welding flux have major influence on the performance of welding processes and weld bead dimensions. We need to understand the physical properties and behavior of fluxes during submerged arc welding. The influence of specific flux additions on arc stability, viscosity, capillarity, slag detachability and weld bead shape need to be better characterized. It can be inferred that we cannot obtain the weld of desired geometry and composition until we consider the physico-chemical characteristics of flux like slag viscosity, surface tension, arc stability and slag detachability, capillarity and weld penetration. So, while designing the flux or during selection of welding process parameters the above characteristics should be carefully controlled or selected.
Key words: Submerged arc welding, bead width, reinforcement, weld penetration, bead morphology.
|Austin JB (1956). Electric ARC welding. American Tech. Soc., Chicago, pp. 61-62.|
|Baach H, Nadkarni SV, Vishvanasth PS (1981). Submerged arc welding: Combined increased deposition rates with improved mechanical properties. Proceedings of the National Conference, Trichi, India.|
|Belton GR, Moore TJ, Tankins ES (1963). Slag metal reactions in submerged arc welding. Weld. Res. Suppl. 42(7):289-297.|
|Butler CA, Jackson CE (1967). Submerged arc welding characteristics of the CaO–TiO2–SiO2 systems. Weld. Res. Suppl. 46(10):448-456.|
|Caddell RM (1967). The influence of physical properties on penetration in arc welding. Trans. Asme J. Engg. Ind. pp. 328-332.|
Chandel RS, Seoe HP, Cheong FL (1997). Effect of increasing deposition rate on weld bead geometry of submerged arc welds. J. Mater. Process. Tech. 72:124-128.
|Ferrera KP, Olson DL (1975). Performance of the MnO–SiO2–CaO system as a welding flux. Weld. Res. Suppl. pp. 211-215.|
|Gupta VK, Parmar RS (1986). Fractional factorial technique to predict dimensions of weld bead in automatic submerged arc welding. J. Inst. Engr., India, 70:67-71.|
|Gurev HS, Stout RD (1963). Solidification phenomenon in inert gas metal arc-welds. Weld. J. 42(7): 298-310.|
|Hazlett TH (1957). Coatings ingredients influence on surface tension, arc stability and bead shapes. Weld. Res. Suppl. 36(1):18-23.|
|Ishizaki K (1966). Interfacial tension theory of the phenomena of arc welding - Mechanism penetration. In Proceeding of the Symposium on Physics of the Weld. Arc. The Institute of Weld., London, pp.195-209.|
|Iwamoto N, Tsunawaki Y, Nakagawa H, Yoshimmua T, Wakabayashi N (1976). Spectral chemistry of green glass‐bearing 15426 regolith. Trans. J. Weld. Res. Inst. 5:101.|
|Jackson CE (1960). The science of arc welding part-1. Weld. Res. Suppl. 39(4):129-140.|
|Jackson CE, Shrubsall AE (1953). Control of penetration and melting ratio with welding techniques. Weld. Res. Suppl. 32(4):172-178.|
|Kumar V (2011). Development and characterization of fluxes for submerged arc welding. Shodhganga. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/2065. 16 May 2011.|
|Linnert G (1995). Weld Metallurgy. American Welding Society, New York.|
|Mcglone JC (1982). Weld bead geometry prediction - A review. Metal Const., pp. 378-384.|
Murugan N, Gunaraj V (2005). Prediction and control of weld bead geometry and shape relationship in submerged arc welding of pipes. J. Mater. Process. Tech. 168:478-487.
|Olson DL (1989). Keynote address - The fundamentals of welding consumables. Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Trends in Welding Research, Gatliburg, Tennessee, USA, pp. 551-562.|
Olson DL, Indacochea JE (1983). Relationship of weld metal microstructure and penetration to weld metal oxygen content. J. Mater. Energy Syst. ASM Int. 5(3):139-148.
|Olson DL, Liu S, Frost RH, Edwards GR, Fleming DA (1993). Nature and Behavior of fluxes used for Welding. ASM Handbook 6(10):55-63.|
|Palm JH (1972). How fluxes determine the metallurgical properties of submerged arc welds. Weld. Res. Suppl., 51(7):358-360.|
|Patchett BM (1983). Some effects of flux physical properties on Weld-Bead formation in the SAW process." J. Mater. Energy Syst. 5(3):165-166.|
|Patchett BM, Dancy EA (1980). Discussion on the relationship of weld penetration to the welding flux. Weld. Res. Suppl. 13:36.|
|Renwick BG, Patchett BM (1976). Operating characteristics of sub merged arc processes. Weld. Res. Suppl. 35(3):69-76.|
|Samiti Z (1986). Automatic pulsed MIG welding. Metal Constr. 1:38R-33R.|
|Schwemmer DD, Olson DL, Williamson DL (1979). The relationship of weld penetration to the welding flux. Weld. Res. Suppl. 59(5):153-160.|
|Sims CE (1963). Theory and fundamentals of Electrical furnace steelmaking. AIME vol. 2.|
|Sparagen W, Claussen WG (1939). Coating and fluxes in welding of Steels. Weld. Res. Suppl. 18(5):153-165.|
|Thodeti S (1992). Submerged arc welding of high strength LOW alloy steels. Ph.D. Dissertation. IIT, Delhi, India.|
|Tregelsky V (1968). The electric welder. Foreign Languages pub. House, Moscow.|
Yang LJ, Chandel RS, Bibby MJ (1992). The effects of process variables on the bead width of submerged-arc weld deposits. J. Mater. Process. Tech. 29(1):133-144.
|APA||(2013). Review on effect of flux composition on its behavior and bead geometry in submerged arc welding (SAW). Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, 5(7), 123-127 .|
|Chicago||Brijpal Singh, Zahid Akthar Khan and Arshad Noor Siddiquee . "Review on effect of flux composition on its behavior and bead geometry in submerged arc welding (SAW)." Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research 5, no. 7 (2013): 123-127 .|
|MLA||Brijpal Singh, Zahid Akthar Khan and Arshad Noor Siddiquee . "Review on effect of flux composition on its behavior and bead geometry in submerged arc welding (SAW)." Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research 5.7 (2013): 123-127 .|