Journal of AIDS and HIV Research
Subscribe to JAHR
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 2EE199665562


Vol.9(8), pp. 164-170 , August 2017
DOI: 10.5897/JAHR2017.0428
ISSN: 2141-2359



Full Length Research Paper

The effects of in utero exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the language abilities of HIV exposed uninfected infants



Tarryn Stevens
  • Tarryn Stevens
  • Department of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, Faculty of Humanities, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
  • Google Scholar
Sheree Schwartz
  • Sheree Schwartz
  • Department of Epidemiology, Centre for Public Health and Human Rights, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615N. Wolfe Street Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.
  • Google Scholar
Anniah Mupawose
  • Anniah Mupawose
  • Department of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, Faculty of Humanities, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
  • Google Scholar
Sharon Moonsamy
  • Sharon Moonsamy
  • Department of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, Faculty of Humanities, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
  • Google Scholar
Vivian Black
  • Vivian Black
  • Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Health Sciences, Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 12 April 2017  Accepted: 04 August 2017  Published: 31 August 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


This study investigates the possible effects of in-utero antiretroviral therapy (ART) exposure on early language development in HIV exposed uninfected infants. 27 mother-infant pairs consented to the study. Early language development was assessed using the Rossetti Infant Toddler Language Scale. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the caregiver and infant characteristics, as well as the language and communication abilities of infants exposed to in-utero ART. T-test statistics compared the early linguistic development of infants conceived while taking efavirenz and infants that were conceived on a nevirapine or protease-inhibitor (PI lopinavir/ritonavir) containing regimen. Similarly, t-tests or ANOVA statistics assessed maternal and infant characteristics associated with total language development. Results obtained in the study revealed no significant differences between the overall language abilities of infants exposed to regimen containing nevirapine or a PI versus regimen that contained efavirenz. The comparison of mean total Rossetti Infant-Toddler Language scores by infant age and maternal and infant characteristics revealed no significant association between variables except for hospitalization. Results obtained suggest that overall language development may not be significantly affected by in utero ART exposure however, further research is warranted to assess whether these infants are at an increased risk of late language emergence.

 

Key words: HIV, in-utero antiretroviral therapy exposure, early language development, Rossetti Infant Toddler Language Scale, HIV, HIV exposed uninfected children.

Christianson A, Howson CP, Modell B (2006). March of Dimes: Global Report on Birth Defects–The Hidden Toll of Dying and Disabled Children March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation. White Plains, NY. Clin. Chim. Acta 315:99-110.

 

National Consolidated Guidelines for the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (2015). National Consolidated Guidelines For the prevention of mother-to-child Transmission of hiv (pmtct) and the management of HIV in Children, Adolescents and Adults Pretoria, South Africa. Available at: 

View

 
 

De Santis M, Carducci B, De Santis L, Cavaliere AF, Straface G (2002). Periconceptional exposure to efavirenz and neural tube defects. Archiv. Intl. Med. 162(3):355-356.
Crossref

 
 

Evian C (2007). Primary HIV/AIDS care (4th ed.). Malaysia: Jacana Media. Available at: http://www.jacana.co.za/book-categories/medical/primary-hiv-clinical-care-detail

 
 

Ford N, Calmy A, Mofenson L (2011). Safety of efavirenz in the first trimester of pregnancy: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS Official J. Int. AIDS Soc. 25(18):2301-2304.
Crossref

 
 

Goga AE, Dinh TH, Jackson DJ, Lombard C, Delaney KP, Puren A, Sherman G, Woldesenbet S, Ramokolo V, Crowley S, Doherty T (2014). First population-level effectiveness evaluation of a national programme to prevent HIV transmission from mother to child. J. Epidemiol. Commun. Health 69(3):240-248.
Crossref

 
 

Owens RE, Farinella KA, Metz DE (2015). Introduction to communication disorders: a lifespan evidentce based perspective (5th ed.). USA: Pearson Higher Ed.

 
 

Pillay P, Black V (2012). Safety, strength and simplicity of efavirenz use in pregnancy. South. Afr. J. HIV Med. 13(1):28-33.
Crossref

 
 

Prothe K (2012). Lasting Effects of a NICU stay and the role of the SLP. Southern Illinois University Carbondale Open SIUC Research Papers. Paper 236.

 
 

Rossetti LM (2006). The Rossetti infant-toddler language scale. East Moline, IL: Lingui Systems.

 
 

Rossetti LM (2001). Communication intervention: Birth to three (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Singular Thomson Learning.

 
 

Rice ML, Buchanan AL, Siberry GK, Malee KM, Zeldow B, Frederick T, Purswani MU, Hoffman HJ, Sirois PA, Smith R, Torre III P (2012a). Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Language impairment in children perinatally infected with HIV compared to children who were HIV-exposed and uninfected. J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr. 33(2):112-23.

 
 

Rice ML, Zeldow B, Siberry GK, Purswani M, Malee K, Hoffman HJ, Frederick T, Buchanan A, Sirois PA, Allison SM, Williams PL (2012b). Evaluation of risk for late language emergence after in-uteroantiretroviral drug exposure in HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 32(10):406-413.
Crossref

 
 

Saxton M (2010). Child Language: Acquisition and Development. United Kingdom: SAGE Publications Ltd.

 
 

Schwartz SR, Rees H, Mehta S, Venter WDF, Taha TE, Black V (2012). High incidence of unplanned pregnancy after antiretroviral therapy initiation: findings from a prospective cohort study in South Africa. PloS one 7(4):e36039.
Crossref

 
 

Slater A (2007). Introduction to Infant Development (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

 
 

Smith L, Adnams C, Eley B (2008). Neurological and neurocognitive function of HIV-infected children commenced on antiretroviral therapy. South Afr. J. Child Health 2(3):108-113.

 
 

Zimmerman IL, Steiner VG, Pond RE (2011). Preschool Language Scale (5thed.). San Antonio TX: Pearson. The Psychological Corporation. 

View

 

 


APA Stevens, T., Schwartz, S., Mupawose, A., Moonsamy, S., & Black, V. (2017). The effects of in utero exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the language abilities of HIV exposed uninfected infants. Journal of AIDS and HIV Research, 9(8), 164-170.
Chicago Tarryn Stevens, Sheree Schwartz, Anniah Mupawose, Sharon Moonsamy and Vivian Black  . "The effects of in utero exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the language abilities of HIV exposed uninfected infants." Journal of AIDS and HIV Research 9, no. 8 (2017): 164-170.
MLA Tarryn Stevens, et al. "The effects of in utero exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the language abilities of HIV exposed uninfected infants." Journal of AIDS and HIV Research 9.8 (2017): 164-170.
   
DOI 10.5897/JAHR2017.0428
URL http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/JAHR/article-abstract/2EE199665562

Subscription Form