ISABB Journal of Health and Environmental Sciences
Subscribe to ISABB-JHE
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - FE2088365608


Vol.4(1), pp. 1-10 , July 2017
DOI: 10.5897/ISAAB-JHE2017.0035
ISSN: 1937-3236



Full Length Research Paper

Mapping epilepsy risks through porcine farming in North West Cameroon



Humphrey Ngala Ndi
  • Humphrey Ngala Ndi
  • Department of Geography, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Yaounde I, Cameroon.
  • Google Scholar
Jude Ndzifon Kimengsi
  • Jude Ndzifon Kimengsi
  • Catholic University of Cameroon, Bamenda, Cameroon.
  • Google Scholar







 Accepted: 03 February 2017  Published: 31 July 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


This study posits that socioeconomic factors determine the patterns of epilepsy. The transmission of cysticerci between pig and man is facilitated by traditional pig rearing, slaughtering, and the poor detection of Taenia solium in slaughter pigs. Neurocysticercosis, resulting from T. solium is often associated with focal epilepsy. To ascertain this relationship, a co-relational design was applied to compare epilepsy prevalence with human activities that may predispose people to the risks of the disease. Information on epilepsy and T. solium was sourced from survey by questionnaire. Hospitals and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) also provided information. The lack of coherent data on epilepsy however lessened the desired rigour in the test of the association of T. solium and epilepsy. Whereas porcine farming and epilepsy were reported from the entire region, Mezan and Batibo dominated both. The obtained Kendall’s tau of -0.881 indicated a strong negative correlation between epilepsy and pork consumption in the areas surveyed. Notwithstanding, the disagreement among researchers on the association between neurocysticercosis and epilepsy, agreement is strong on the association of neorocysticercosis porcine farming areas. Thus, the strength of this study resides in the attempt to pattern porcine farming and epilepsy geographically. Such surveys can provide clues to disease control and the fight against T. solium.

 

Key words: Epilepsy, porcine farming, Taenia solium, neurocysticercosis, Batibo, Cameroon.

Aall LJ (2004). Epilepsy and onchocerciasis: Pioneering research of Mexican physicians vindicated. Investigacion en salud, 6(1).

 

Assana E, Zoli AP, Sadou HA, Nguekam JP, Vondou L, Pouedet MSR, Dorny P, Brandt J, Geerts S (2001). Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Mayo-Danay (North Cameroon) and Mayo-Kebbi (South West Chad). Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop. 54:123-127
Crossref

 
 

BUCREP (2010). Rapport de presentation des resultats definitifs. BUCREP.

 
 

Community Development and Epilepsy Foundation (2010). An Assessment of the availability and affordability of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDS) in Health Centres / Sensitization of People living with epilepsy about anti-epileptic drugs (AEDS): a survey carried out in Bafut, Batibo and Bali health districts in the North-West of Cameroon from February to November 2010.

 
 

Cruz M, Davies A, Dixon H, Pawlowski ZS, Proano J (1989). Operational studies on the control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Ecuador. Bull. World Health Organ. 67(4):401-407.

 
 

Dekker PA (2002). Epilepsy: A manual for medical and clinical officers in Africa. WHO, Geneva. 133p.

 
 

De Boer HM, Mula M, Sander JW (2008). The global burden and stigma of epilepsy. Epilepsy Behaviour 12:540-546.
Crossref

 
 

Dongmo L, Druet-Cabanac M, Moyou SR, Zebaze DR, Njamnshi AK, Sini V, Mapoure N, Echouffo TJ, Djeumen WC, Ndumbe PM (2004). Cysticercosis and epilepsy: a case-control study in Mbam Valley, Cameroon. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 97(2):105-108.

 
 

Druet-Cabanac M, Preux PM, Bouteille B, Bernady-Bernet P, Dunand J, Hopkins A, Yaya G, Tabo A, Sartoris C, Macharia W, Dumas M (1999). Onchocerciasis and epilepsy: a matched case-control study in the Central African Republic. Am. J. Epidemiol. 149(6).
Crossref

 
 

Dung Dung AA, Singh KH, Kumari S, Gupta M, Raval M, Rajender G (2009). Knowledge, attitude and perception of caregivers of children with epilepsy. Delhi Psychiatry J. 12(2):274-275.

 
 

Elliot I, Jerome A, Angwafor SA, Smith ML, Takougang I, Noh J, Tsang V, Wilkins P, Cockburn L, Keystone J, Njamnshi AK, Snead III, OC (2013). Epilepsy and cysticercosis in North-West Cameroon: A serological study. Seizure 22:283-286.
Crossref

 
 

Garcia HH, Gonzalez AE, Evans CAW, Gilman RH (2003). Taenia Solium cysticercosis. Seminar. Lancet. Vol. 361. www.thelancet.com
Crossref

 
 

Kaiser C, Kipp W, Asaba G, Mugisa C., Kabagambe G, Rating D, Leichsenring M (1996). The prevalence of epilepsy follows the distribution of onchocerciasis in a West Ugandan focus. Bull. World Health Organ. 74(4):361-367.

 
 

Kennedy MJ (2005). Tapeworms (Cysticercosis) in Swine. AGRI-FACTS. Practical information for Alberta's Agriculture Industry, February 2005.

 
 

Mazigo HD, Morona D, Kweka EJ, Waihenya R, Mnyone LL, Heukelbach J (2013). Epilepsy and tropical parasitic infections in Sub-Saharan Africa: a review. Tanzan J. Health Res. 15(2). 
Crossref

 
 

MINSANTE (2009). Strategie sectorielle de sante 2001-2015. Edition 2009. MINSANTE.

 
 

Nguekam JP, Zoli AP, Zogo PO, Kamga ACT, Speybroeck N, Dorny P, Brandt J, Geerts S (2003). A seroepidemiological study of human cysticercosis in West Cameroon. Trop. Med. Intl. Health 8:144-149.
Crossref

 
 

Ntaimah TP (2008). Gender dimensions of the experience of the burden of epilepsy: an example of the Manguisa community in Cameroon. Afr. Anthropologist 15(1&2):39-59.

 
 

Njamnshi AK, Angwafor SA, Jallon P, Muna WF (2009a). Secondary school students' knowledge. Attitudes, and practice toward epilepsy in the Batibo Health districts- Cameroon. Epilepsia 50(5):1262-1265
Crossref

 
 

Njamnshi AK, Angwafor SA, Tabah EN, Jallon P, Muna WF (2009b). General public knowledge, attitudes, and practices with respect to epilepsy in the Batibo health district, Cameroon. Epilepsy Behav. 14(1):83-8.
Crossref

 
 

Onwuekwe OI (2007). Convulsive epilepsy-perspective from Africa. UTMJ. 84(2).

 
 

Praet N, Speybroeck N, Manzanedo R, Berkvens D, Nforninwe DN, Zoli A, Quet F, Preux P, Carabin H, Geerts N (2009). The disease burden of T. solium cysticercosis in Cameroon. PLos Neglected Tropical Diseases 3(3). 

View.
Crossref

 
 

Pouedet MSR, Zoli PA, Nguekam JP, Vondoua L, Assana E, Speybroeck N, Berkvens D, Dorny P, Brandt J, Geerts S (2002). Epidemiological survey of swine cysticercosis in two rural communities of West Cameroon. Vet. Parasitol.106:45-55.
Crossref

 
 

Paul A, Adeloye D, George-Care R, Kolcic I, Grant L, Chan KY (2012). An estimation of the prevalence of epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic analysis. J. Global Health 2(2). 

View
Crossref

 
 

Shey-Njila O, Zoli PA, Awah-Ndukum J, Nguekam JP, Assana E, Byambas P, Dorny P, Brandt J, Geerts S (2003). Porcine cysticercosis in village pigs of North-West Cameroon. J Helminthol 77: 351-354.
Crossref

 
 

Thomas LF, Harrison LJS, Toye P, Anson de Glanville W, Cook EAJ, Wamae CN, Fevre EM (2016). Prevalence of T.Solium cysticercosis in pigs entering the food chain in Western Kenya. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 48:233-238. 
Crossref

 
 

Vondou L, Zoli AP, Nguekam JP, Pouedet SMR, Assana E, Kamga T, Dorny P, Brandt J, Geerts S (2002). La taeniacysticercosis a T. Solium dans la Menoua (Ouest Cameroun). Parasite 9: 271-274.
Crossref

 
 

WHO (2004). Epilepsy in the WHO Africa Region: Bridging the Gap (The global campaign against epilepsy "Out of the Shadows". WHO.

 
 

WHO (2012). Accelerating the work to overcome the Global Impact of Neglected tropical diseases: A Roadmap for Implementation. WHO. 

View

 
 

Willingham AL (2002). New research opportunities in meat-borne and the other parasitic zoonoses. Book chapter. WHO/FAO Collaborating Centre for Research and Training on emerging and other parasitic zoonoses. Danish Centre for Experimental Parasitology, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University.

 
 

Zoli AP, Nguekam, Shey-Njila O, Nforninwe DN, Speybroeck N, Ito A, Sato MO, Dorny P, Brandt J, Geerts S (2003). Neurocysticercosis and epilepsy in Cameroon. Trans. R Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 97:683-686.
Crossref

 
 

Zoli A, Shey-Njila O, Assana E, Nguekam JP, Dorny P, Brandt J, Geerts S (2003). Regional Status, epidemiology and impact of Taenia Solium Cysticercosis in Western and Central Africa. Acta Trop. 87:35-42.
Crossref

 

 


APA Ndi, H. N., & Kimengsi, J. N. (2017). Mapping epilepsy risks through porcine farming in North West Cameroon. ISABB Journal of Health and Environmental Sciences, 4(1), 1-10.
Chicago Humphrey Ngala Ndi and Jude Ndzifon Kimengsi. "Mapping epilepsy risks through porcine farming in North West Cameroon." ISABB Journal of Health and Environmental Sciences 4, no. 1 (2017): 1-10.
MLA Humphrey Ngala Ndi and Jude Ndzifon Kimengsi. "Mapping epilepsy risks through porcine farming in North West Cameroon." ISABB Journal of Health and Environmental Sciences 4.1 (2017): 1-10.
   
DOI 10.5897/ISAAB-JHE2017.0035
URL http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/ISABB-JHE/article-abstract/FE2088365608

Subscription Form