International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation
Subscribe to IJBC
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - B1F118166708


Vol.9(12), pp. 342-349 , December 2017
DOI: 10.5897/IJBC2017.1145
ISSN: 2141-243X



Full Length Research Paper

Energy consumption and expenditure of Panthera pardus in the Southern African region: How much hunting success is enough?



Ielyzaveta Maksymivna Ivanova
  • Ielyzaveta Maksymivna Ivanova
  • School of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 01 September 2017  Accepted: 23 October 2017  Published: 31 December 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


Panthera pardus is a widespread mammalian carnivore, with a very broad diet range. Therefore, it is often seen as needing less protection as compared with some other predator species. However, with a 37% reduction in historic range and some subspecies critically endangered, the leopard is a species that does indeed require certain conservation attention. In Southern Africa, there are several threats facing the leopard: habitat loss, poaching, as well as killings associated with leopard-human conflict (the latter being aggravated by poorly-stocked reserves where the animals reside). In setting aside formal protected areas for the leopard and its prey, it is important to plan and stock these reserves in such a manner so as to limit potential conflict with owners of surrounding farmlands or tribal land. Focusing on the average daily energetic consumption and expenditure of the leopard in Southern Africa, this paper seeks to determine how regular successful hunts can help maintain the animal. It was found from the study that there is a very close balance between the energy consumption and expenditure of the leopard. Depopulation of a varying intensity may result from a hunting success probability below 0.5. Leopards are unlikely to persist where hunting success is reduced to 0.1 due to prey shortage. This finding is believed to provide some preliminary guidance for leopard prey stocking rates in the future. 

 

Key words: African leopard, energy expenditure, prey stocking rate, leopard-farmer conflict, conservation, predator-prey interaction.

Bailey TN (1993). The African leopard: ecology and behaviour of a solitary felid. Columbia University Press, New York, USA.

 

Balme GA, Slotow R, Hunter LTB (2009). Impact of conservation interventions on the dynamics and persistence of a persecuted leopard (Panthera pardus) population. Biol. Conserv. 142:2681-2690.
Crossref

 
 

Balme GA, Slotow R, Hunter LTB (2010). Edge effects and the impact of non‐protected areas in carnivore conservation: leopards in the Phinda–Mkhuze Complex, South Africa. Anim. Conserv. 13:315-323.
Crossref

 
 

Balme GA, Lindsey PA, Swanepoel LH, Hunter LTB (2013). Failure of research to address the rangewide conservation needs of large carnivores: leopards in South Africa as a case study. Conserv. Lett. 7:3-11.
Crossref

 
 

Bellard C, Bertelsmeier C, Leadley P, Thuiller W, Courchamp F (2012). Impacts of climate change on the future of biodiversity. Ecol. Lett. 15:365-377.
Crossref

 
 

Berkovich EM (1964). Normal and pathological energy metabolism (Russian). Medizina, Moscow, USSR. pp. 331-333.

 
 

BirdLife South Africa (2016). iSimangaliso Wetland Park information page. 

View Accessed on: 31 March 2017.

 
 

Bothma JP, Le Riche EAN (1986). Prey preference and hunting efficiency of the Kalahari Desert leopard' In: Cats of the world: Biology, Conservation and Management, SD Miller, DD Everett (eds.). National Wildlife Federation, Washington DC. Pp. 389–414.

 
 

Bothma JDP (1998). Carnivore Ecology in Arid Lands. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 7-42.
Crossref

 
 

Burkey TV (1995). Extinction rates in archipelagos: implications for populations in fragmented habitats. Conserv. Biol. 9:527-541.
Crossref

 
 

Chapman S, Balme GA (2010). An estimate of leopard population density in a private reserve in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, using camera-traps and capture-recapture models. South Afr. J. Wildl. Res. 40:114-120.
Crossref

 
 

Creel S, Spong G, Creel N (2001). Interspecific competition and population biology of extinction-prone carnivores. In Carnivore Conservation. Gittleman, J.L., Funk, S.M., Macdonald, D. and R.W. Wayne (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. pp. 35-61.

 
 

Deka K, Athreya V, Odden M, Linnell J (2012). Chemical immobilization of leopard Pathera pardus in the wild for collaring in Maharashtra, India. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 109:153-157.

 
 

Fahrig L (1997). Relative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population extinction. J. Wildl. Manag. 61:603-610.
Crossref

 
 

Fahrig L (2001). How much habitat is enough? Biol. Conserv. 100:65-74.
Crossref

 
 

Fanger PO (1970). Thermal Comfort: Analysis and Applications in Environmental Engineering. Danish Technical Press, Copenhagen, Denmark.

 
 

Fretwell SD (1987). Food-chain dynamics: the central theory of ecology. Oikos 50:291-301.
Crossref

 
 

Giam X, Bradshaw CJA, Tan HTW, and Sodhi NS (2010). Future habitat loss and the conservation of plant biodiversity. Biol. Conserv. 143:1594-1602.
Crossref

 
 

Gorini L, Linnell JDC, May R, Panzacchi M, Boitani L, Odden M, Nilsen EB (2012). Habitat heterogeneity and mammalian predator-prey interactions. Mammal Rev. 42:55-77.
Crossref

 
 

Gurevitch J, Padilla DK (2004). Are invasive species a major cause of extinctions? Trends Ecol. Evol. 19:470-474.
Crossref

 
 

Hayward MW, Henschel P, O'Brien J, Hofmeyr M, Balme G, Kerley GIH (2006). Prey preferences of the leopard (Panthera pardus). J. Zool. 270:298-313.
Crossref

 
 

Hoffman LC (2000). The yield and carcass chemical composition of impala (Aepyceros melampus), a southern African antelope species. J. Sci. Food Agric. 80:752-756.
Crossref

 
 

Ingram DL, Mount LE (1975). Man and Animals in Hot Environments. Springer-Verlag, New York, USA. pp. 10-14.
Crossref

 
 

Jacobson AP, Gerngross P, Lemeris Jr JR, Schoonover RF, Anco C, Breitenmoser-Würsten C, Durant SM, Farhadinia MS, Henschel P, Kamler JF, Laguardia A, Rostro-García S, Stein AB, Dollar L (2016). Leopard (Panthera pardus) status, distribution, and the research efforts across its range. Peer J. 4:e1974. 
Crossref

 
 

Joyce JP, Blaxter KL, Park C (1966). The effect of natural outdoor environments on the energy requirements of sheep. Res. Vet. Sci. 7:342-359.

 
 

Karanth KU, Nichols JD, Kumar NS, Link WA, Hines JE (2004). Tigers and their prey: predicting carnivore densities from prey abundance. PNAS 14:4854-4858.
Crossref

 
 

Kettles R, Slotow R (2009). Management of free-ranging lions in an enclosed game reserve. South Afr. J. Wildl. Res. 39:23-33.
Crossref

 
 

Kissui BM (2008). Livestock predation by lions, leopards, spotted hyenas, and their vulnerability to retaliatory killing in the Maasai steppe, Tanzania. Animal Conserv. 11:422-432.
Crossref

 
 

Martin RB, de Meulenaer T (1988). Survey of the status of the leopard (Panthera pardus) in sub-Saharan Africa. CITES, Switzerland.

 
 

McArthur AJ (1981). Chapter 3: Thermal insulation and heat loss from animals. In: Environmental Aspects of Housing for Animal Production, J.A. Clark (ed.). Butterworths, London, UK. P 47.
Crossref

 
 

Mitchell D (1974). Convective heat transfer from man and other animals. In: Heat Loss from Animals and Man: Assessment and Control, J.L. Monteith, L.E. Mount (eds.). Butterworths, London, UK. P 72.
Crossref

 
 

Miththapala S, Seidensticker J, O'Brien SJ (1996). Phylogeographic subspecies recognition in leopards (Panthera pardus): molecular genetic variation. Conserv. Biol. 10:1115-1132.
Crossref

 
 

Norton P (1990). How many leopards? A criticism of Martin and de Meulenaer's population estimates for Africa. South Afr. J. Sci. 86:218

 
 

Nowak RM (1999). Walker's mammals of the world (6th edition). Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

 
 

Nowell K, Jackson P (1996). Wild cats: status, survey and conservation action plan. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources/ Species Survival Commission Cat Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.

 
 

Parker KL, Barboza PS, Gillingham MP (2009). Nutrition integrates environmental responses of ungulates. Funct. Ecol. 23:57-69.
Crossref

 
 

Preisser EL, Bolnick DI, Benard MF (2005). Scared to death? The effects of intimidation and consumption in predator-prey interactions. Ecology 86:501-509.
Crossref

 
 

Ray JC, Hunter L, Zirgouris J (2005). Setting conservation and research priorities for larger African carnivores. WCS Working paper no. 24. Wildlife Conservation Society, New York, USA.

 
 

Rodewald AD, Kearns LJ, Shustack DP (2011). Anthropogenic resource subsidies decouple predator-prey relationships. Ecol. Appl. 21:936-943.
Crossref

 
 

Schmidt-Nielsen K (1984). Scaling: why is animal size so important? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Crossref

 
 

Schönfeldt H (1993). Nutritional content of venison. In: Forum: The venison industry. Research requirements and possibilities. Irene Industrial Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa. pp. 51-60.

 
 

Seabloom EW, Dobson AP, Stoms DM (2002). Extinction rates under nonrandom patterns of habitat loss. PNAS 99:11229-11234.
Crossref

 
 

Sheil D (2001). Conservation and biodiversity monitoring in the tropics: realities, priorities, and distractions. Conserv. Biol.15:1179-1182.
Crossref

 
 

Simberloff D (1984). Mass extinction and the destruction of moist tropical forests. Журнал общей биологии (Zhurnal Obshchei Biologii) 45:767-778.

 
 

Skead CJ (2007). Historical incidence of the larger land mammals in the broader eastern Cape (2nd edition). Centre for African Conservation Ecology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

 
 

Smith RM (1978). Movement patterns and feeding behaviour of the leopard in the Rhodes Matopos National Park, Rhodesia. Carnivore 1:58-69.

 
 

Stander PE, Haden PJ, Kaqece II, Ghau II (1997). The ecology of asociality in Namibian leopards. J. Zool. 242:343-364.
Crossref

 
 

Stein AB, Athreya V, Gerngross P, Balme G, Henschel P, Karanth U, Miquelle D, Rostro-Garcia S, Kamler JF, Laguardia A, Khorozyan I, Ghoddousi A (2016). Panthera pardus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016:e.T15954A102421779

 
 

Stephens DW (2008). Decision ecology: foraging and the ecology of animal decision making. Cogn. Affect. and Behav. Neurosci. 8:475-484.
Crossref

 
 

Swanepoel LH, Lindsey P, Somers MJ, van Hoven W, Dalerum F (2013). Extent and fragmentation of suitable leopard habitat in South Africa. Anim. Conserv. 16:41-50.
Crossref

 
 

Switzer PV (1993). Site fidelity in predictable and unpredictable habitats. Evol. Ecol. 7:533-555.
Crossref

 
 

Tilman D, May RM, Lehman CL, Nowak MA (1994). Habitat destruction and the extinction debt. Nature 371:65-66.
Crossref

 
 

Werner E, Peacor S (2003). A review of trait-mediated indirect interactions in ecological communities. Ecology 84:1083-1100.
Crossref

 
 

Weather SA (2017). Forecast for The Big 5 False Bay represented by Hluhluwe. 

 

View

 
 

Whitfield DP (2003). Predation by Eurasian sparrowhawks produces density dependent mortality of wintering redshanks. J. Anim. Ecol. 72:27-35.
Crossref

 
 

Wikelski M, Cooke SJ (2006). Conservation physiology. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21:38-46.
Crossref

 

 


APA Ivanova, I. M. (2017). Energy consumption and expenditure of Panthera pardus in the Southern African region: How much hunting success is enough?. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, 9(12), 342-349.
Chicago Ielyzaveta Maksymivna Ivanova. "Energy consumption and expenditure of Panthera pardus in the Southern African region: How much hunting success is enough?." International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 9, no. 12 (2017): 342-349.
MLA Ielyzaveta Maksymivna Ivanova. "Energy consumption and expenditure of Panthera pardus in the Southern African region: How much hunting success is enough?." International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 9.12 (2017): 342-349.
   
DOI 10.5897/IJBC2017.1145
URL http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/IJBC/article-abstract/B1F118166708

Subscription Form