African Journal of Microbiology Research
Subscribe to AJMR
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - FF6C5C766199


Vol.11(36), pp. 1386-1391 , September 2017
DOI: 10.5897/AJMR2017.8615
ISSN: 1996-0808



Full Length Research Paper

Detection and genotyping of rhinovirus from exacerbated asthmatic patients in Baghdad, Iraq



Ayad M. Gaidan
  • Ayad M. Gaidan
  • College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Google Scholar
Ahmed A. Abbas
  • Ahmed A. Abbas
  • Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Google Scholar
Qasim S. Al-Mayah
  • Qasim S. Al-Mayah
  • Medical Research Unit, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Google Scholar
Mohammed A. Hassan
  • Mohammed A. Hassan
  • Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Google Scholar
Hashem M. Hashim
  • Hashem M. Hashim
  • Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 08 June 2017  Accepted: 16 August 2017  Published: 28 September 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


Asthma is a chronic disease with multiple environmental and genetic causes. Determining the role of rhinovirus in asthma incidence and exacerbation could improve the controlling measures for this disease. This study aims to detect and genotype human rhinovirus (HRV) in asthmatic patients in Iraqi population. A total of 45 patients with asthma participated in this study. Viral RNA was extracted from nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and cDNA was created using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Specific primers for HRV were used with two rounds nested-PCR to amplify the 5’-noncoding region of the viral genome. PCR products of the second round nested-PCR underwent direct sequencing and the resultant sequences were aligned with reference sequences in GenBank. MEGA 5 software was used to construct phylogenetic tree between eight successfully sequenced isolates and eight reference isolates. Alignment of viral sequence revealed highly genetic diversity between these sequences and the reference isolates. Phylogenetic tree showed that five isolates belong to Human Rhinovirus- A (HRV-A), while three isolate belong to Human Rhinovirus-C (HRV-C). The HRV-C was detected and genotyped for the first time in Iraq. The results of the current study suggest the significant role of HRV infection among patients with exacerbated asthma in Iraq.

Key words: Human rhinovirus, genotyping, asthma exacerbation.

Arakawa M, Okamoto-Nakagawa R, Toda S, Tsukagoshi H, Kobayashi M, Ryo A, Mizuta K, Hasegawa S, Hirano R, Wakiguchi H, Kudo K, Tanaka R, Morita Y, Noda M, Kozawa K, Ichiyama T, Shirabe K, Kimura H (2012). Molecular epidemiological study of human rhinovirus species A, B and C from patients with acute respiratory illnesses in Japan. J. Med. Microbiol. 61:410-419.
Crossref

 

Bochkov YA, Gern JE (2012). Clinical and molecular features of human rhinovirus C. Microbes Infect. 14:485-494.
Crossref

 
 

Briese T, Renwick N, Venter M, Jarman RG, Ghosh D, Kِndgen S, Shrestha SK, Hoegh AM, Casas I, Adjogoua EV, Akoua-Koffi C, Myint KS, Williams DT, Chidlow G, van den Berg R, Calvo C, Koch O, Palacios G, Kapoor V, Villari J, Dominguez SR, Holmes KV, Harnett G, Smith D, Mackenzie JS, Ellerbrok H, Schweiger B, Schّnning K, Chadha MS, Leendertz FH, Mishra AC, Gibbons RV, Holmes EC, Lipkin WI (2008). Global distribution of novel rhinovirus genotype. Emerg. Infect. Dis.14:944-947.
Crossref

 
 

Daleno C, Piralla A, Scala A, Senatore L, Principi N, Esposito S (2013). Phylogenetic analysis of human rhinovirus isolates collected from otherwise healthy children with community-acquired pneumonia during five successive years. PLoS One 8(11):e80614.
Crossref

 
 

Edwards MR, Bartlett NW, Hussell T, Openshaw P, Johnston SL (2012). The microbiology of asthma. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 10:459-471.
Crossref

 
 

Guilbert T, Deulinger L (2010). Role of infection in the development and exacerbation of asthma. Expert Rev. Respir. Med. 4(1):71-83.
Crossref

 
 

Han TH, Chung JY, Hwang ES, Koo JW (2009). Detection of human rhinovirus C in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections in South Korea. Arch. Virol. 154:987-991.
Crossref

 
 

Jacobs SE, Lamson DM, Georgeb KS, Walsh TJ (2013). Human Rhinoviruses. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 26(1):135-162.
Crossref

 
 

Johnston NW, Johnston SL, Duncan JM, Duncan JM, Greene JM, Kebadze T, Keith PK, Roy M, Waserman S, Sears MR (2005). The September epidemic of asthma exacerbations in children: a search for etiology. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 115(1):132-138.
Crossref

 
 

Johnston SL (2007). Innate immunity in the pathogenesis of virus induced asthma exacerbations. Proc. Am. Thorac. Soc. 4:267-270.
Crossref

 
 

Kiang D, Kalra I, Yagi S, Louie JK, Boushey H, Boothby J, Schnurr DP (2008). Assay for 5'- noncoding region analysis of all human rhinovirus prototype strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:3736-3745.
Crossref

 
 

Lamson D, Renwick N, Kapoor V, Liu Z, Palacios G, Ju J, Dean A, St George K, Briese T, Lipkin WI (2006). MassTag polymerase-chain-reaction detection of respiratory pathogens, including a new rhinovirus genotype, that caused influenza-like illness in New York State during 2004-2005. J. Infect. Dis. 194:1398-1402.
Crossref

 
 

Langereis MA, Feng Q, Nelissen FH, Virgen-Slane R, van der Heden van Noort GJ, Maciejewski S, Filippov DV, Semler BL, van Delft FL, van Kuppeveld FJ (2014). Modification of picornavirus genomic RNA using "click" chemistry shows that unlinking of the VPg peptide is dispensable for translation and replication of the incoming viral RNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 42:2473-2482.
Crossref

 
 

Lau SK, Yip CC, Lin AW, Lee RA, So LY, Lau YL, Chan KH, Woo PC, Yuen KY (2009). Clinical and molecular epidemiology of a novel rhinovirus species, human rhinovirus C. J. Infect. Dis. 200:1096-1103.
Crossref

 
 

Lee WM, Kiesner C, Pappas T, Lee I, Grindle K, Jartti T, Jakiela B, Lemanske RF Jr, Shult PA, Gern JE (2007). A diverse group of previously unrecognized human rhinoviruses are common causes of respiratory illnesses in infants. PLoS One 2(10):e966.
Crossref

 
 

Leotte J, Trombetta H, Faggio HZ, Almeida BM, Nogueira MB, Vidal LR, Raboni SM (2017). Impact of seasonality of human rhinovirus infection on hospitalized patients for two consecutive years. J. Pediatr. 93(3):294-300.
Crossref

 
 

Liao H, Yang Z, Yang C, Tang Y, Liu S, Guan W, Chen R (2016). Impact of viral infection on acute exacerbation of asthma in out-patient clinics: a prospective study. J. Thorac. Dis. 8(3):505-512.
Crossref

 
 

McIntyre CL, Leitch ECM, Savolainen-Kopra C, Hovi T, Simmonds P (2010). Analysis of genetic diversity and sites of recombination in human rhinovirus species C. J. Virol. 84:10297-10310.
Crossref

 
 

Miller EK, Edwards KM, Weinberg GA, Iwane MK, Griffin MR, Hall CB, Zhu Y, Szilagyi PG, Morin LL, Heil LH, Lu X, Williams JV (2009b). A novel group of rhinoviruses is associated with asthma hospitalizations. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 123:98-104.
Crossref

 
 

Miller EK, Khuri-Bulos N, Williams JV, Shehabi AA, Faouri S, Al Jundi I, Chen Q, Heil L, Mohamed Y, Morin LL, Ali A, Halasa NB (2009a). Human rhinovirus C associated with wheezing in hospitalized children in the Middle east. J. Clin. Virol. 46(1):85-89.
Crossref

 
 

Moore ML, Stokes KL, Hartert TV (2013). The impact of viral genotype on pathogenesis and disease severity: respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinoviruses. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 25:761-768.
Crossref

 
 

Pallansch MA, Roos R (2007). Enteroviruses: Polioviruses, Coxsackieviruses, Echoviruses, and New Enteroviruses. In. Knipe DM, Howley PM, Griffin DE, Martin MA, Lamb RA, Roizman B, Straus SE. (ed.), Fields Virology, Lippincott Willams & Wilkins. pp. 839-893.

 
 

Renwick N, Schweiger B, Kapoor V, Liu Z, Villari J, Bullmann R, Miething R, Briese T, Lipkin WI (2007). A recently identified rhinovirus genotype is associated with severe respiratory-tract infection in children in Germany. J. Infect. Dis. 196:1754-1760.
Crossref

 
 

Reuter S, Stassen M, Taube C (2010). Mast cells in allergic asthma and beyond. Yonsei Med. J. 51(6):797-807.
Crossref

 
 

Simmonds P, McIntyre C, Savolainen-Kopra C, Tapparel C, Mackay IM, Hovi T (2010). Proposals for the classification of human rhinovirus species C into genotypically assigned types. J. Gen. Virol. 91:2409-2419.
Crossref

 
 

Sun H, Sun Q, Jianga W, Chena Z, Huanga L, Wang M, Ji W, Yan W (2016). Prevalence of rhinovirus in wheezing children: a comparison with respiratory syncytial virus wheezing. Braz. J. Infect. Dis. 20(2):179-183.
Crossref

 
 

Susanna KPL, Cyril CY, Ada WC, Rodney AL, Lok-Yee S, Yu-Lung L (2009). Clinical and molecular epidemiology of human rhinovirus C in children and adults in Hong Kong reveals a possible distinct human rhinovirus C subgroup. J. Infect. Dis. 200:1096-1103.
Crossref

 
 

World Health Organization (WHO) (2004). WHO factsheet 206: bronchial asthma. Available at 

View.

 
 

World Health Organization (WHO)(2011). Fact sheet No 307: Asthma. 2011. Available at 

View.

 

 


APA Gaidan, A. M., Abbas, A. A., Al-Mayah, Q. S., Hassan, M. A., & Hashim, H. M. (2017). Detection and genotyping of rhinovirus from exacerbated asthmatic patients in Baghdad, Iraq. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 11(36), 1386-1391.
Chicago Ayad M. Gaidan, Ahmed A. Abbas, Qasim S. Al-Mayah, Mohammed A. Hassan and Hashem M. Hashim. "Detection and genotyping of rhinovirus from exacerbated asthmatic patients in Baghdad, Iraq." African Journal of Microbiology Research 11, no. 36 (2017): 1386-1391.
MLA Ayad M. Gaidan, et al. "Detection and genotyping of rhinovirus from exacerbated asthmatic patients in Baghdad, Iraq." African Journal of Microbiology Research 11.36 (2017): 1386-1391.
   
DOI 10.5897/AJMR2017.8615
URL http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/FF6C5C766199

Subscription Form