African Journal of
Microbiology Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0808
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 4837

Full Length Research Paper

Phytochemical screening, toxicity and antimicrobial action of Solanum paniculatum Linn extract against dental biofilm bacteria

Maria Regina Macedo-Costa
  • Maria Regina Macedo-Costa
  • Departamento de Odontologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Av. Salgado Filho, 59056-000 - Natal, RN – Brasil.
  • Google Scholar
Pedro Henrique Sette-de-Souza
  • Pedro Henrique Sette-de-Souza
  • Departamento de Odontologia, Universidade de Pernambuco – Campos Arcoverde, Rua Gumercindo Cavalcanti, 56512-200 - São Cristóvão - Arcoverde/PE– Brasil.
  • Google Scholar
Shenia Eliane do Rego Carneiro
  • Shenia Eliane do Rego Carneiro
  • Departamento de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Av. Salgado Filho, 59056-000 - Natal, RN – Brasil.
  • Google Scholar
Anne Kaline Claudino Ribeiro
  • Anne Kaline Claudino Ribeiro
  • Departamento de Odontologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Av. Salgado Filho, 59056-000 - Natal, RN – Brasil.
  • Google Scholar
Katarine Florencio de Medeiros
  • Katarine Florencio de Medeiros
  • Departamento de Odontologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Av. Salgado Filho, 59056-000 - Natal, RN – Brasil.
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Juliana Felix Silva
  • Juliana Felix Silva
  • Departamento de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Av. Salgado Filho, 59056-000 - Natal, RN – Brasil.
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Matheus de Freitas Fernandes-Pedrosa
  • Matheus de Freitas Fernandes-Pedrosa
  • Departamento de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Av. Salgado Filho, 59056-000 - Natal, RN – Brasil.
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Kenio Costa de Lima
  • Kenio Costa de Lima
  • Departamento de Odontologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Av. Salgado Filho, 59056-000 - Natal, RN – Brasil.
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  •  Received: 14 June 2016
  •  Accepted: 18 November 2016
  •  Published: 21 December 2017

Abstract

The aims of study were to determine the phytochemical composition of hydroalcoholic extract of Solanum paniculatum Linn (jurubeba) root, to evaluate its in vitro antimicrobial action, as well as to determine the acute toxicity and potential cytotoxic effects of this extract. The extract was characterized by phytochemical screening and thin-layer chromatography. The following oral bacteria were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC): Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus salivarius and Lactobacillus casei. Each assay was carried out in duplicate and the positive control (0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate) was subjected to the same procedure. Results were analyzed by Student t-test or Mann-Whitney test, with the level of significance set at 5%. Preclinical acute toxicity assays were performed using the median lethal dose of the extracts in animals. In addition, the cytotoxic effects of the extracts on human erythrocytes were evaluated. Solanum paniculatum showed MIC values of 7.81 mg/mL. The extract had no acute effects at concentrations of 0.97 to 500 mg/mL. The S. paniculatum extract was only cytotoxic at a concentration of 250 mg/mL. Phytochemical screening revealed predominance of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and tannins. In conclusion, S. paniculatum Linn showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against bacterial monocultures. No toxicological effects were observed. The predominance of phenols may explain the pharmacological activity of this extract. However, randomized controlled clinical trials should be conducted to evaluate the effect of S. paniculatum added to mouthwash solution. 
 
Key words:  Microbiology, phytotherapy, chromatography, toxicity, Solanum paniculatum Linn.