African Journal of Microbiology Research
Subscribe to AJMR
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - E45465666201


Vol.11(36), pp. 1392-1398 , September 2017
DOI: 10.5897/AJMR2016.8072
ISSN: 1996-0808



Full Length Research Paper

Urinary tract infection among children and adolescents of Garhwal Region of Uttarakhand, India



Semwal A. C.
  • Semwal A. C.
  • Department of Microbiology, Veer Chandra Singh Garhwali Medical College, Srinagar Garhwal, India.
  • Google Scholar
Saklani P.
  • Saklani P.
  • Department of Zoology and Biotechnology, H.N.B. Garhwal (A Central) University, Srinagar Garhwal, India.
  • Google Scholar
Mathuria Y. P.
  • Mathuria Y. P.
  • Department of Microbiology, Veer Chandra Singh Garhwali Medical College, Srinagar Garhwal, India.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 25 April 2016  Accepted: 01 September 2017  Published: 28 September 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


Urinary tract comprises of kidney, ureter, urethra and genital organ and under normal circumstances these organs are sterile. Inflammation of these organ and parts may indicate the possibility of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). It may be due to the colonization of wide range of bacteria either from normal microflora that is Escherichia coli or from other Gram negative or Gram positive bacteria. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of urinary tract infection in children and adolescents of hilly areas of Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, India. The sample collection was done from April 2013 to December 2013 from the Out Patient Department (OPD) and In Patient Department (IPD) of Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna Base Hospital, Srinagar Garhwal at an average height of 560 m (1837 ft) above sea level at foothills of Himalayas. Clean voided mid-stream urine samples were collected in sterile universal containers from 76 children of age group 0 to 10 years and 129 adolescents of age group 11 to 20 years. Bacterial counts greater than or equal to 1x105 CFU/mL in culture plates were taken as positive, which was an indication of UTI as introduced by Kass. Colony morphological characteristics were used for identification of bacterial isolation followed by Gram’s staining and biochemical tests. Our study showed a high prevalence of E. coli as the most dominant bacteria causing UTI in children and adolescents of hilly Garhwal region of Uttarakhand.

Keywords: Urinary tract infection (UTI), coagulase negative staphylococcus (CoNS), outdoor patient department (OPD), indoor patient department (IPD).

Alausa KO, Onile BA (1984). The epidemiological pattern of bacterial septicaemia at the University College Hospital, Ibadan. Niger. Med. J.14:55-62.

 

Al-Badr A, Al-Shaikh G (2013). Recurrent urinary tract infections management in women: A review. Sultan Qaboos Univ. Med. J. 13(3):359-367.
Crossref

 
 

Anochie IC, Nkanginieme KEO, Eke FU (2001). The influence of instruction about the method of urine collections and storage on the prevalence of urinary tract infection. Niger. J. Paediatr. 28(2):39-42.
Crossref

 
 

Bauer AW, Kirby WM, Sherris JC, Turck M (1966). Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 45(4):493-496.

 
 

Biswas D, Gupta P, Prasad R, Singh V, Arya M, Kumar A(2006). Choice of antibiotic for empirical therapy of acute cystitis in a setting of high antimicrobial resistance. Indian J. Med. Sci.60(2):53-58.
Crossref

 
 

Brumbaugh AR, Mobley HL (2012). Preventing urinary tract infection: progress toward an effective Escherichia coli vaccine. Expert. Rev. Vaccines 11(6):663-676.
Crossref

 
 

Byington CL, Rittichier KK, Bassett KE, Castillo H, Glasgow TS, Daly J, Pavia AT (2003). Serious Bacterial Infections in Febrile Infants Younger Than 90 Days of Age: The Importance of Ampicillin-Resistant Pathogens. Pediatrics 111(5):964-968.
Crossref

 
 

Car J (2006). Urinary tract infections in women: Diagnosis and management in primary care. BMJ 332:94-97.
Crossref

 
 

Chandra H, Srivastava J, Agarwal RK (2016). Fundamental Techniques in Microbiology. Publisher John Publisher Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi. ISBN 978-81-928544-1-0.

 
 

Daoud Z, Afif C (2011). Escherichia coli Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections of Lebanese Patients between 2000 and 2009: Epidemiology and Profiles of Resistance. Chemother. Res. Pract. Volume 2011, Article ID 218431, 6 pages.

 
 

Doern CD, Richardson SE (2016). Diagnosis of urinary tract infections in children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 54(9):2233-2242.
Crossref

 
 

Foxman B (2002). Epidemiology of urinary tract infections: Incidence, morbidity, and economic costs. Am. J. Med.113(Suppl 1A):5-13S.
Crossref

 
 

Foxman B, Barlow R, D'Arcy H, Gillespie B, Sobel JD (2000). Urinary tract infection: self-reported incidence and associated costs. Ann. Epidemiol. 10:509-515.
Crossref

 
 

Fry J (1969). Medicine in Three Societies Lancaster Medical and Technical Publishing Co. Ltd.

 
 

Goldraichi NP, Manfroi A (2003). Febrile urinary infection. Escherichia coli susceptibly to oral antimicrobials Paediatr. Nephrol. 17(3):173-176.

 
 

Goldstein FW (2000). Antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial strains isolated from patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections in France. Multicentre Study Group. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.19:112-117.
Crossref

 
 

Gonzalez CM, Schaeffer AJ (1999) Treatment of urinary tract infection: What`s old, what`s new, and what works. World J. Urol. 6:372-382.
Crossref

 
 

Gupta K, Hooten TM, Stamm WE (2001) Increasing antimicrobial resistance and the management of uncomplicated community-acquired urinary tract infections. Ann Intern Med 135:41-50.
Crossref

 
 

Gupta V, Yadav A, Joshi RM (2002): Antibiotic resistance pattern in uropathogen. Indian J Med Microbiol. 20:96-98.

 
 

Hooton TM, Stamm WE (1997). Diagnosis and treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection. Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am. 11(3):551-581.
Crossref

 
 

Hooton TM (2012). Uncomplicated urinary tract infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 366(11):1028-1037.
Crossref

 
 

Junuzovic D, Zunic L, Dervisefendic M, Skopljak A, Pasagic A, Masic I (2014). The toxic effect on leukocyte lineage of antimicrobial therapy in urinary and respiratory infections. Med. Arch. 68(3):167-169.
Crossref

 
 

Kahan NR, Chinitz DP, Waitman DA, Dushnitzky D, Kahan E (2006). Shapiro M:Empiric treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection with fluoroquinolones in older women in Israel: Another lost treatment option? Ann. Pharmacother. 40(12):2223-2227.
Crossref

 
 

Kulkarni SR, Peerapur BV, Sailesh KS (2017). Isolation and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Escherichia coli from Urinary Tract Infections in a Tertiary Care Hospital of North Eastern Karnataka. J. Nat. Sci. Biol. Med. 8(2):176-180.
Crossref

 
 

Kumar MS, Lakshmi V, Rajagopalan R (2006). Related Articles, Occurrence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases among Enterobacteriaceae spp. isolated at a tertiary care institute. Indian J. Med. Microbiol. 24(3):208-211.

 
 

Lipsky BA (1990). Urinary tract infection in men: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. Ann. Inter. Med. 110:138-150.
Crossref

 
 

Manges AR, Natarajan P, Solberg OD, Dietrich PS, Riley LW (2006). The changing prevalence of drug-resistant Escherichia coli clonal groups in a community: evidence for community outbreaks of urinary tract infections. Epidemiol. Infect. 134(2):425-431.
Crossref

 
 

Mond MC, Gruneberg RN, Smellie JM (1970). A study of childhood urinary tract infection in general practice. Br. Med. J. 1:602-605.
Crossref

 
 

Najar MS, Saldanha CL, Banday KA (2009). Approach to urinary tract infections. Indian J. Nephrol. 19(4):129-139.
Crossref

 
 

Nicolle L, Anderson PA, Conly J, Mainprize TC, Meuser J, Nickel JC, Senikas VM, Zhanel GG (2006). Uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women Current practice and the effect of antibiotic resistance on empiric treatment. Can. Fam. Physician 52(5):612-618.

 
 

Okafor HV, Okoro BA, Ibe BC (1993). Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among nursery school children. Niger. J. Paediatr. 20:84-88.

 
 

Olowu WA (1996). Symptomatic bacteriuria in children. Niger. Med Pract. 27:76-80.

 
 

Olowu WA, Oyetunji TG (2003). Nosocomial significant bacteriuria prevalence and pattern of bacterial pathogens among children hospitalized for non-infective urinary tract disorders. West Afr. J. Med. 22(1):72-75.

 
 

Royal College (1995). Royal College of General Practitioners Office of Population Consensus & Survey. Department of Health Morbidity Statistics from General Practice (1991–1992). London: HMSO.

 
 

Schaeffer AJ (2002). The expanding role of fluoroquinolones. Am. J. Med. 113(Suppl 1A):45S-54S.
Crossref

 
 

Smith RD, Coast J (2002). Antimicrobial resistance: a global response. Bull. World Health Organ. 80:126-133.

 
 

Sorlózano-Puerto A, Gómez-Luque JM, Luna-Del-Castillo JD, Navarro-Marí JM, Gutiérrez-Fernández (2017). Etiological and resistance profile of bacteria involved in urinary tract infections in young children. Biomed. Res. Int. 2017 Apr 11; 2017.
Crossref

 
 

Stamm WE, Norrby SR (2001). Urinary tract infections: disease panorama and challenges. J. Infect. Dis. 183(Suppl 1):S1-S4.
Crossref

 
 

Uzunović-Kamberović S (2009). Medicinska mikrobiologija. I izd ed. Zenica: Štamparija Fojnica. pp. 367-375.

 

 


APA Semwal, A. C., Saklani, P., & Mathuria Y. P. (2017). Urinary tract infection among children and adolescents of Garhwal Region of Uttarakhand, India. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 11(36), 1392-1398.
Chicago Semwal A. C., Saklani P. and Mathuria Y. P.. "Urinary tract infection among children and adolescents of Garhwal Region of Uttarakhand, India." African Journal of Microbiology Research 11, no. 36 (2017): 1392-1398.
MLA Semwal A. C., Saklani P. and Mathuria Y. P.. "Urinary tract infection among children and adolescents of Garhwal Region of Uttarakhand, India." African Journal of Microbiology Research 11.36 (2017): 1392-1398.
   
DOI 10.5897/AJMR2016.8072
URL http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/E45465666201

Subscription Form