African Journal of Microbiology Research
Subscribe to AJMR
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 1F5868E66854


Vol.11(44), pp. 1606-1613 , November 2017
DOI: 10.5897/AJMR2017.7088
ISSN: 1996-0808



Full Length Research Paper

Isolation and identification of methicillin-resistant Staphlococcus aureus from mastitic dairy cows in Bishoftu town, Ethiopia



Hika Waktole Ayana
  • Hika Waktole Ayana
  • College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, P. O. Box; 34, Bishoftu, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar
Biruk Tesfaye Mekonnen
  • Biruk Tesfaye Mekonnen
  • College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, P. O. Box; 34, Bishoftu, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar
Ashenafi Shiferaw Bulle
  • Ashenafi Shiferaw Bulle
  • College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, P. O. Box; 34, Bishoftu, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar
Mekonnen Sorsa Berecha
  • Mekonnen Sorsa Berecha
  • College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, P. O. Box; 34, Bishoftu, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 27 August 2014  Accepted: 11 August 2017  Published: 28 November 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


This study determines prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus from bovine mastitis in dairy cows from October 2012 to June 2013 in Bishoftu town, Ethiopia. In this cross-sectional study, 16 dairy farms were included and 384 lactating cows sampled. Clinical examination and California mastitis test (CMT) were performed to diagnose clinical and subclinical mastitis, respectively. Milk samples were obtained from the quarters that reacted positively to California mastitis test and cultured to isolate S. aureus. Antimicrobial sensitivity test was conducted on the isolates using antibiotics including penicillin G (10 IU), amoxicillin (25 μg), streptomycin (10 μg), erythromycin (15 μg), oxacillin (1 μg), chloroamphenicol (30 μg), vancomycin (30 μg) and ampicillin (10 μg), all from Oxoid and tetracycline (30 μg) and gentamicin (10 μg) with agar diffusion technique. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science. Results reveal that of the 384 milk samples collected and subjected to CMT examination, 177(46.09%) were found to be mastitis positive, of which 23(12.99%) and 154(87%) showed clinical and subclinical mastitis, respectively. Of the 177(46.09%) mastitis positive cases, S. aureus was isolated in 110(28.65%) samples. The antibiotic susceptibility test indicated that the highest resistance was observed for penicillin (100%) followed by oxacillin (65.45%), erythromycin (61.82%) and amoxacillin (59.09%). There was a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) between S. aureus prevalence and risk factors (age and lactation stage). This study indicates that there is high existence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus in dairy cows. Therefore, public awareness on transmission, prevention and control of methicillin-resistant S. aureus is suggested.

Key words: Bishoftu, dairy cows, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Abera M, Demie B, Aragaw K, Regassa F, Regassa A (2010). Isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitic milk and their drug resistance patterns in Adama town, Ethiopia. J. Vet. Med. Anim. Health 2:29-34.

 

Abraham J, Morris D, Griffeth G, Shofer F, Rankin S (2007). Surveillance of healthy cats and cats with inflammatory skin disease for colonization of the skin by methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci and Staphylococcus schleiferi subspies schleiferi. Vet. Dermatol. 18:252-259.
Crossref

 
 

Addisalem T, Mersha C (2012). Study on the Occurrence of Bovine Mastitis in Addis Ababa Dairy Farms and Associated Risk Factors. Adv. Biol. Res. 6(4):151-158.

 
 

Armand-Lefevre L, Ruimy R, Andremont A (2005). Clonal comparison of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from healthy pig farmers, human control and pigs. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:711-714.
Crossref

 
 

Bitew M, Tafere A, Tolosa T (2010). Study on bovine mastitis in dairy farms of Bahir Dar town and its environs. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 9: 2912-2917.
Crossref

 
 

Bjorland J, Sunde M, Waage S (2001). Plasmid-borne smr gene causes resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds in bovine Staphylococcus aureus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:3999-4004.
Crossref

 
 

Butaye P, Struelens M, Vanholme L (2007). Methicillin Resistant S. aureus. Report on Zoonotic Agents in Belgium; Trends and sources by working group on food born infection and intoxications, pp. 59-61.

 
 

Cheesbrough M (2002). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical countries: Cambridge: Cambridge University press: England 2:225-248.

 
 

Corrales J C, Counteras A, Sierra D, Marco J C (1995). Sensibilidad antibiotica invitro de estaflococos y corinebacterias aisladas de mamitis subclinicas caprinas. Med. Vet. 12:16-24.

 
 

Daka D, Solomon G, Dawit Y (2012). Antibiotic-resistance Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cow's milk in the Hawassa area, South Ethiopia. Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob. 11:26.
Crossref

 
 

Diep BA, Chambers HF, Graber CJ, Szumewski JD, Miller LG, Han LL, Chen J H, Lin F (2008). Emergence of multi-drug-resistant community associates methicillin-resisitant Staphylococcusaureus. Clone USA 300 in Men who have sex with men. Ann. Intl. Med. 148:1-17.
Crossref

 
 

Fufa A, Gemechis F, Bekele M, Alemayehu R (2013). Bovine Mastitis: Prevalence, Risk Factors and Bacterial Isolation in Small-Holder Dairy Farms in Addis Ababa City, Ethiopia. Glob. Vet. 10:647-652.

 
 

Gundogan N, Citak S, Yucel N, Devren A (2005). A note on the incidence and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from meat and chicken samples. Meat Sci. 69:807-810.
Crossref

 
 

Gustavo PK, Marines DV, Igor MM (2001). High frequency of colonization and absence of identifiable risk factors for MRSA in intensive care unit in Brazil. Braz. J. Infect. Dis. 5:1-7.
Crossref

 
 

Hiramatsu K, Katayama Y, Matsuo M, Sasaki T, Morimoto Y, Sekiguchi A, Baba T (2014). Multi-drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and future chemotherapy. J. Infect. Chemother. 20:593-601.
Crossref

 
 

Hundera S, Ademe Z, Sintayehu A (2005). Dairy cattle mastitis in and around Sebeta, Ethiopia. Intl. J. Appl. Vet. Med. 2:1525-1530.

 
 

Ivanka M, Vladimir J (2008). Current knowledge of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Biomedical Papers 152:191-202.
Crossref

 
 

Jones GM, Bailey TL, Roberson JR (1998). Staphylococcus aureus mastitis: cause, detection and control. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Pub. Num. Virginia pp. 404-229.

 
 

King MD, Humphrey BJ, Wang YF, Kourbalova EV, Ray SM, Blumbrg HM (2006). Emergence of community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA 300 clone as the predominant cause of skin and soft tissue infections. Ann. Intl. Med. 144:309-317.
Crossref

 
 

Kivaria F M, Noordhuizen J P, Msami H M (2007). Risk factors associated with the incidence rate of clinical mastitis in smallholder dairy cows in the Dares Salaam region of Tanzania. Vet. J. 173:623-629.
Crossref

 
 

Lakew M, Tolosa T, Worku T (2009). Prevalence and major bacterial causes of bovine mastitis in Asella, South eastern Ethiopia. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 41:1525-1530.
Crossref

 
 

Lee HL (2003). Methicillin (oxacillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from major food animals and their potential transmission to humans. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:6489-6494.
Crossref

 
 

Mekibib B, Furgasa M, Abunna F, Megersa B, Regassa A (2010). Bovine Mastitis: Prevalence, Risk Factors and Major Pathogens in Dairy Farms of Holeta Town, Central Ethiopia. Vet. World 3:397-400.
Crossref

 
 

Mekonnen H, Workineh S, Bayleyegn M, Moges A, Tadele K (2005). Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of mastitis isolates from cows in three major Ethiopian dairies. Med. Vet.176:391-394.

 
 

Moges N, Asfaw Y, Belihu K, Tadessa A (2012). Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Mastitis Pathogens from Smallholder Dairy Herds in and around Gondar, Ethiopia. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 10:1616-1622.

 
 

Mungube EO, Tenhagen BA, Regassa F, Kyule M, Shiferaw YN, Kassa MP, Baumann L (2005). Reduced Milk Production in Udder Quarters with Subclinical Mastitis and Associated Economic Losses in Crossbred Dairy Cows in Ethiopia. J. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 37:503-512.
Crossref

 
 

National Meteorological Services Agency of Ethiopia (NMSA)(2012). Rainfall and temperature data of Debre Zeit, National Metrological Service Agency, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

 
 

Quinn PJ, Carter ME, Marke BK, Carter GR (1999). Clinical Veterinary Microbiology. Mosby International Limited, London, pp. 254-266.

 
 

Quinn PJ, Carter ME, Markey BK, Carter GR (1994). Mastitis: In Clinical Veterinary Microbiology. Mosby International Limited, London, pp. 327-344.

 
 

Quinn PJ, Markey BK, Carter ME, Donelly WJ, Leonard FC (2002). Bacterial cause of bovine mastitis.Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Diseases, Blackwell Science Ltd, a Blackwell publishing company, pp. 465-475.

 
 

Rene SH, Dik JM, Andreas S, Christopher T, Danièle M, Patrick B, Alessia F, Andra U, Alice A, Miguel M, Christina G, Katharina S, Christian B, Anna L M, Dariusz W, Marianne S, Frank MA (2008). Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens isolated from cattle in different European countries: 2002–2004. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica. 50:28.
Crossref

 
 

Rowe JD (1999). Milk quality and mastitis. Small Ruminants for Mixed Practitioner. Western Vet. Conference. Lasvagas, pp. 152-156.

 
 

Salihu MD, Junaidu AU, Tambuwal FM, Magaji AA, Jaafaru S (2011). Prevalence of Mastitis in lactating cows in some selected commercial dairy farms in Sekoto Metropolis. Adv. Appl. Sci. Res. 2:290-294.

 
 

Salyers AA, Whitt, DD (2002). A molecular approach Bacterial pathogenesis, 2nd edn. Washington, DC: ASM Press pp. 53-100.

 
 

Schaumburg F, Ateba-Ngoga U, Kosters K, Kock R, Adegnika A A, Kremsner P A, Lell B, Peters G, Mellmann A, Becker K (2011). Virulence factors and genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus from infection and carriage in Gabon. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 17:1507-1513.
Crossref

 
 

Shiferaw A, Ejeta G, Asfaw Y (2009). Bacterial causes of septicaemia and antibiogram profile in cattle from Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. Rev. de. Med. Vet. 160:204-208.

 
 

Singh R, Singh KP, Chauhan RS (2007). A text book of diagnostic pathology. Centre for animal disease research and diagnosis, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, pp. 109-112.

 
 

Sori T, Hussein J, Bitaw M (2011). Prevalence and Susceptibility Assay on Staphylococcus aureus iolated from Bovine Masititis in dairy Farms of Jimma Town, South west Ethiopia. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 10:745-749.
Crossref

 
 

Takele B, Halefom H, Fikru G, Ashenafi FB, Fufa A, Bedasso M, Dinka A, Hika W, Reta DA (2017). Determination of the sources and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella isolated from the poultry industry in Southern Ethiopia. BMC Infect. Dis. 17(1):352.
Crossref

 
 

Thrusfield M (2005). Veterinary Epidemiology.3rd edition Blackwell Science Ltd. UK., pp. 233-250.

 
 

Vintov J, Aarestrup FM, Zinn CE, Olsen JE (2003). Association between phage types and antimicrobial resistance among bovine Staphylococcus aureus from 10 countries. Vet. Microbiol. 95:133-147.
Crossref

 

 


APA Ayana, H. W., Mekonnen, B. T., Bulle, A. S., & Berecha, M. S. (2017). Isolation and identification of methicillin-resistant Staphlococcus aureus from mastitic dairy cows in Bishoftu town, Ethiopia. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 11(44), 1606-1613.
Chicago Hika Waktole Ayana, Biruk Tesfaye Mekonnen, Ashenafi Shiferaw Bulle and Mekonnen Sorsa Berecha. "Isolation and identification of methicillin-resistant Staphlococcus aureus from mastitic dairy cows in Bishoftu town, Ethiopia." African Journal of Microbiology Research 11, no. 44 (2017): 1606-1613.
MLA Hika Waktole Ayana, et al. "Isolation and identification of methicillin-resistant Staphlococcus aureus from mastitic dairy cows in Bishoftu town, Ethiopia." African Journal of Microbiology Research 11.44 (2017): 1606-1613.
   
DOI 10.5897/AJMR2017.7088
URL http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-abstract/1F5868E66854

Subscription Form