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Article Number - B51EA9665575


Vol.11(9), pp. 448-460 , September 2017
DOI: 10.5897/AJEST2017.2367
ISSN: 1996-0786



Review

A review of heavy metals in soil and aquatic systems of urban and semi-urban areas in Malawi with comparisons to other selected countries



Chikumbusko Chiziwa Kaonga
  • Chikumbusko Chiziwa Kaonga
  • Physics and Biochemical Sciences Department, University of Malawi, The Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Chichiri, Blantyre 3, Malawi.
  • Google Scholar
Ishmael BobbyMphangwe Kosamu
  • Ishmael BobbyMphangwe Kosamu
  • Physics and Biochemical Sciences Department, University of Malawi, The Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Chichiri, Blantyre 3, Malawi.
  • Google Scholar
Deliwe Dinah Lakudzala
  • Deliwe Dinah Lakudzala
  • Physics and Biochemical Sciences Department, University of Malawi, The Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Chichiri, Blantyre 3, Malawi.
  • Google Scholar
Rex Mbewe
  • Rex Mbewe
  • Physics and Biochemical Sciences Department, University of Malawi, The Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Chichiri, Blantyre 3, Malawi.
  • Google Scholar
Benard Thole
  • Benard Thole
  • Physics and Biochemical Sciences Department, University of Malawi, The Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Chichiri, Blantyre 3, Malawi.
  • Google Scholar
Morris Monjerezi
  • Morris Monjerezi
  • Chemistry Department, Chancellor College, P. O. Box 280, Zomba, Malawi.
  • Google Scholar
Russel Chrispine Garvin Chidya
  • Russel Chrispine Garvin Chidya
  • Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8521, Japan.
  • Google Scholar
Stephen Kuyeli
  • Stephen Kuyeli
  • Malawi Bureau of Standards, P. O. Box 946, Blantyre, Malawi.
  • Google Scholar
Samson Mkali Idruss Sajidu
  • Samson Mkali Idruss Sajidu
  • Chemistry Department, Chancellor College, P. O. Box 280, Zomba, Malawi.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 13 June 2017  Accepted: 26 July 2017  Published: 30 September 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


Growth of cities in developing countries comes with increasing transportation and industrial activities which may contribute to accumulation of heavy metals in the environment. This paper provides a review of studies on heavy metals in Malawi`s environment, their potential environmental impacts and possible removal methods with comparisons to other selected countries. The reviewed data from Malawi showed that in water samples, heavy metal concentrations were higher than World Health Organisation (WHO) and Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS) safe limits especially in streams passing through industrial sites. Reports of heavy metals (especially Cu, Mn and Zn) showed that in industrial effluents, the individual levels of each of them were at least 6 times higher as compared to those in surface water bodies. In rivers there was accumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ni and Zn) by algae whereby bioconcentration factors (BCF) ranged from 1.0 to 42 in some of the studies.  Generally, metal levels in soils and selected organisms were much higher than those in water samples which further confirm possible accumulation. Since some aquatic organisms are consumed by humans, there is potential for the heavy metals to cause cancer and kidney damage. The studies done in Malawi compared well to those conducted elsewhere. The degradation of water resources by heavy metals compromises sustainability of water bodies and vital aquatic ecosystems hence negatively impacting on Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) efforts. This calls for periodic heavy metal monitoring and identifying ways of reducing their release into the environment.

Key words: Environment, heavy metals, pollution, public health, Malawi.

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APA Kaonga, C. C., Kosamu, I. B., Lakudzala, D. D., Mbewe, R., Thole, B., Monjerezi, M., Chidya, R. C. G., Kuyeli, S., & Sajidu, S. M. I. (2017). A review of heavy metals in soil and aquatic systems of urban and semi-urban areas in Malawi with comparisons to other selected countries. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 11(9), 448-460.
Chicago Chikumbusko Chiziwa Kaonga, Ishmael BobbyMphangwe Kosamu, Deliwe Dinah Lakudzala, Rex Mbewe, Benard Thole, Morris Monjerezi, Russel Chrispine Garvin Chidya, Stephen Kuyeli and Samson Mkali Idruss Sajidu. "A review of heavy metals in soil and aquatic systems of urban and semi-urban areas in Malawi with comparisons to other selected countries." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 11, no. 9 (2017): 448-460.
MLA Chikumbusko Chiziwa Kaonga, et al. "A review of heavy metals in soil and aquatic systems of urban and semi-urban areas in Malawi with comparisons to other selected countries." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 11.9 (2017): 448-460.
   
DOI 10.5897/AJEST2017.2367
URL http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/B51EA9665575

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8SELECT `Article`.`id`, `Article`.`journal_section_id`, `Article`.`journal_issue_id`, `Article`.`article_number`, `Article`.`article_type`, `Article`.`title`, `Article`.`accepted_date`, `Article`.`received_date`, `Article`.`abstract`, `Article`.`abbrev`, `Article`.`full_text`, `Article`.`pages`, `Article`.`doi`, `Article`.`authors_for_citation`, `Article`.`authors`, `Article`.`email`, `Article`.`phone`, `Article`.`address`, `Article`.`has_full_text`, `Article`.`has_reference`, `Article`.`pdf_file`, `Article`.`published`, `Article`.`published_date`, `Article`.`status`, `Article`.`author_id`, `Article`.`created`, `Article`.`modified`, `Article`.`read_count`, `Article`.`shared_count`, `Article`.`download_count`, `Article`.`other_links`, `Article`.`references` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`articles` AS `Article` WHERE `Article`.`journal_issue_id` = (9123)330
9SELECT COUNT(*) AS `count` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`articles` AS `Article` LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_issues` AS `JournalIssue` ON (`Article`.`journal_issue_id` = `JournalIssue`.`id`) LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_sections` AS `JournalSection` ON (`Article`.`journal_section_id` = `JournalSection`.`id`) LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`authors` AS `Author` ON (`Article`.`author_id` = `Author`.`id`) WHERE `JournalIssue`.`journal_id` =88 AND `Article`.`published` = 1110
10SELECT `Article`.`id`, `Article`.`journal_section_id`, `Article`.`journal_issue_id`, `Article`.`article_number`, `Article`.`article_type`, `Article`.`title`, `Article`.`accepted_date`, `Article`.`received_date`, `Article`.`abstract`, `Article`.`abbrev`, `Article`.`full_text`, `Article`.`pages`, `Article`.`doi`, `Article`.`authors_for_citation`, `Article`.`authors`, `Article`.`email`, `Article`.`phone`, `Article`.`address`, `Article`.`has_full_text`, `Article`.`has_reference`, `Article`.`pdf_file`, `Article`.`published`, `Article`.`published_date`, `Article`.`status`, `Article`.`author_id`, `Article`.`created`, `Article`.`modified`, `Article`.`read_count`, `Article`.`shared_count`, `Article`.`download_count`, `Article`.`other_links`, `Article`.`references`, `JournalIssue`.`id`, `JournalIssue`.`journal_id`, `JournalIssue`.`archive_id`, `JournalIssue`.`volume_number`, `JournalIssue`.`issue_number`, `JournalIssue`.`page_range`, `JournalIssue`.`edition`, `JournalIssue`.`month`, `JournalIssue`.`picture`, `JournalIssue`.`home_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`current_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`articles_count`, `JournalIssue`.`e-book`, `JournalIssue`.`issuu_embed`, `JournalIssue`.`subject`, `JournalIssue`.`created`, `JournalIssue`.`modified`, `JournalSection`.`id`, `JournalSection`.`name`, `JournalSection`.`journal_id`, `JournalSection`.`description`, `JournalSection`.`created`, `JournalSection`.`modified`, `Author`.`id`, `Author`.`surname`, `Author`.`other_names`, `Author`.`email`, `Author`.`phone`, `Author`.`sex`, `Author`.`institution`, `Author`.`address`, `Author`.`specialization`, `Author`.`country`, `Author`.`password`, `Author`.`last_login`, `Author`.`created`, `Author`.`title`, `Author`.`affiliation`, `Author`.`blacklist_id` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`articles` AS `Article` LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_issues` AS `JournalIssue` ON (`Article`.`journal_issue_id` = `JournalIssue`.`id`) LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_sections` AS `JournalSection` ON (`Article`.`journal_section_id` = `JournalSection`.`id`) LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`authors` AS `Author` ON (`Article`.`author_id` = `Author`.`id`) WHERE `Article`.`article_number` = 'B51EA9665575' LIMIT 11195
11SELECT `AbstractTranslation`.`id`, `AbstractTranslation`.`article_id`, `AbstractTranslation`.`language`, `AbstractTranslation`.`abstract`, `AbstractTranslation`.`published`, `AbstractTranslation`.`created`, `AbstractTranslation`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`abstract_translations` AS `AbstractTranslation` WHERE `AbstractTranslation`.`article_id` = (1009959903)000
12SELECT `ArticleTranslation`.`id`, `ArticleTranslation`.`article_id`, `ArticleTranslation`.`name`, `ArticleTranslation`.`url`, `ArticleTranslation`.`translator`, `ArticleTranslation`.`translator_url`, `ArticleTranslation`.`created`, `ArticleTranslation`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`article_translations` AS `ArticleTranslation` WHERE `ArticleTranslation`.`article_id` = (1009959903)000
13SELECT `ArticleAuthor`.`id`, `ArticleAuthor`.`name`, `ArticleAuthor`.`article_id`, `ArticleAuthor`.`email`, `ArticleAuthor`.`phone`, `ArticleAuthor`.`department`, `ArticleAuthor`.`affiliation`, `ArticleAuthor`.`country`, `ArticleAuthor`.`created`, `ArticleAuthor`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`article_authors` AS `ArticleAuthor` WHERE `ArticleAuthor`.`article_id` = (1009959903)990
14SELECT `ArticleReference`.`id`, `ArticleReference`.`title`, `ArticleReference`.`article_id`, `ArticleReference`.`authors`, `ArticleReference`.`year`, `ArticleReference`.`volume`, `ArticleReference`.`pages`, `ArticleReference`.`journal_title`, `ArticleReference`.`google_scholar`, `ArticleReference`.`pub_med`, `ArticleReference`.`url`, `ArticleReference`.`created`, `ArticleReference`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`article_references` AS `ArticleReference` WHERE `ArticleReference`.`article_id` = (1009959903)000
15SELECT `JournalIssue`.`id`, `JournalIssue`.`journal_id`, `JournalIssue`.`archive_id`, `JournalIssue`.`volume_number`, `JournalIssue`.`issue_number`, `JournalIssue`.`page_range`, `JournalIssue`.`edition`, `JournalIssue`.`month`, `JournalIssue`.`picture`, `JournalIssue`.`home_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`current_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`articles_count`, `JournalIssue`.`e-book`, `JournalIssue`.`issuu_embed`, `JournalIssue`.`subject`, `JournalIssue`.`created`, `JournalIssue`.`modified`, `Journal`.`id`, `Journal`.`journal_category_id`, `Journal`.`name`, `Journal`.`issn`, `Journal`.`abbrev`, `Journal`.`pub_abbrev`, `Journal`.`banner`, `Journal`.`colour`, `Journal`.`email`, `Journal`.`password`, `Journal`.`instruction_for_author_file`, `Journal`.`reviewers_guide_file`, `Journal`.`about_text`, `Journal`.`submit_manuscript`, `Journal`.`instructions_for_authors`, `Journal`.`pub_ethics`, `Journal`.`abstracting`, `Journal`.`call_for_papers`, `Journal`.`faculty_1000`, `Journal`.`editors`, `Journal`.`journal_issue_count`, `Journal`.`journ_handling_fee`, `Journal`.`founding_editor`, `Journal`.`founding_editor_address`, `Journal`.`created`, `Journal`.`modified`, `Journal`.`subdomain`, `Archive`.`id`, `Archive`.`month`, `Archive`.`year`, `Archive`.`created`, `Archive`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_issues` AS `JournalIssue` LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`journals` AS `Journal` ON (`JournalIssue`.`journal_id` = `Journal`.`id`) LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`archives` AS `Archive` ON (`JournalIssue`.`archive_id` = `Archive`.`id`) WHERE `JournalIssue`.`id` = 9047 LIMIT 1110
16SELECT `Article`.`id`, `Article`.`journal_section_id`, `Article`.`journal_issue_id`, `Article`.`article_number`, `Article`.`article_type`, `Article`.`title`, `Article`.`accepted_date`, `Article`.`received_date`, `Article`.`abstract`, `Article`.`abbrev`, `Article`.`full_text`, `Article`.`pages`, `Article`.`doi`, `Article`.`authors_for_citation`, `Article`.`authors`, `Article`.`email`, `Article`.`phone`, `Article`.`address`, `Article`.`has_full_text`, `Article`.`has_reference`, `Article`.`pdf_file`, `Article`.`published`, `Article`.`published_date`, `Article`.`status`, `Article`.`author_id`, `Article`.`created`, `Article`.`modified`, `Article`.`read_count`, `Article`.`shared_count`, `Article`.`download_count`, `Article`.`other_links`, `Article`.`references` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`articles` AS `Article` WHERE `Article`.`journal_issue_id` = (9047)440
17SELECT `ArticleMetric`.`id`, `ArticleMetric`.`article_id`, `ArticleMetric`.`ip`, `ArticleMetric`.`read_t`, `ArticleMetric`.`count`, `ArticleMetric`.`country`, `ArticleMetric`.`region`, `ArticleMetric`.`continent`, `ArticleMetric`.`created`, `ArticleMetric`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`article_metrics` AS `ArticleMetric` WHERE `ArticleMetric`.`article_id` = 1009959903 AND `ArticleMetric`.`read_t` = 'article-abstract' AND `ArticleMetric`.`ip` = '54.225.39.142' AND DATE_FORMAT(`ArticleMetric`.`created`, '%Y-%m-%d') = '2017-09-20' LIMIT 1004542
18BEGIN004542
19INSERT INTO `admin_academic_journals`.`article_metrics` (`read_t`, `count`, `article_id`, `ip`, `country`, `region`, `continent`, `modified`, `created`) VALUES ('article-abstract', 1, 1009959903, '54.225.39.142', 'United States', 'Virginia', 'North America', '2017-09-20 05:12:36', '2017-09-20 05:12:36')111654
20COMMIT111654
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22SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
23SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
24SELECT `JournalIssue`.`id`, `JournalIssue`.`journal_id`, `JournalIssue`.`archive_id`, `JournalIssue`.`volume_number`, `JournalIssue`.`issue_number`, `JournalIssue`.`page_range`, `JournalIssue`.`edition`, `JournalIssue`.`month`, `JournalIssue`.`picture`, `JournalIssue`.`home_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`current_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`articles_count`, `JournalIssue`.`e-book`, `JournalIssue`.`issuu_embed`, `JournalIssue`.`subject`, `JournalIssue`.`created`, `JournalIssue`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_issues` AS `JournalIssue` WHERE `JournalIssue`.`id` = 9047 LIMIT 1110
25SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
26SELECT `JournalIssue`.`id`, `JournalIssue`.`journal_id`, `JournalIssue`.`archive_id`, `JournalIssue`.`volume_number`, `JournalIssue`.`issue_number`, `JournalIssue`.`page_range`, `JournalIssue`.`edition`, `JournalIssue`.`month`, `JournalIssue`.`picture`, `JournalIssue`.`home_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`current_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`articles_count`, `JournalIssue`.`e-book`, `JournalIssue`.`issuu_embed`, `JournalIssue`.`subject`, `JournalIssue`.`created`, `JournalIssue`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_issues` AS `JournalIssue` WHERE `JournalIssue`.`id` = 9047 LIMIT 1110
27SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
28SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
29SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
30SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
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34SELECT `Journal`.`id`, `Journal`.`journal_category_id`, `Journal`.`name`, `Journal`.`issn`, `Journal`.`abbrev`, `Journal`.`pub_abbrev`, `Journal`.`banner`, `Journal`.`colour`, `Journal`.`email`, `Journal`.`password`, `Journal`.`instruction_for_author_file`, `Journal`.`reviewers_guide_file`, `Journal`.`about_text`, `Journal`.`submit_manuscript`, `Journal`.`instructions_for_authors`, `Journal`.`pub_ethics`, `Journal`.`abstracting`, `Journal`.`call_for_papers`, `Journal`.`faculty_1000`, `Journal`.`editors`, `Journal`.`journal_issue_count`, `Journal`.`journ_handling_fee`, `Journal`.`founding_editor`, `Journal`.`founding_editor_address`, `Journal`.`created`, `Journal`.`modified`, `Journal`.`subdomain` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`journals` AS `Journal` WHERE `Journal`.`id` = 88 LIMIT 1110