African Journal of
Environmental Science and Technology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0786
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJEST
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 889

Full Length Research Paper

Determination of cadmium, chromium and lead in four brands of herbal bitters preparation sold in Benin- city, Southern Nigeria

Afieroho O. E.
  • Afieroho O. E.
  • Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Achara F.
  • Achara F.
  • Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Adewoyin B.
  • Adewoyin B.
  • Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Abo K. A.
  • Abo K. A.
  • Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 12 October 2015
  •  Accepted: 14 June 2016
  •  Published: 31 May 2018

Abstract

This study evaluated the level of three toxic heavy metals (cadmium, chromium and lead) in four selected brands of herbal bitter preparations sold in Benin City, Southern Nigeria purchased from chemists' shops, using the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique. The result of the atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) analysis showed that Chromium (Cr) was not detected in any of the four brands. Lead (Pb) was present in only two herbal bitters B (28.0 ppm) < S (75.0 ppm) while Cadmium (Cd) was detected in all the herbal bitters with a trend A (3.2 ppm) < Y( 5.3 ppm) < B( 31.0 ppm) < S (45.8 ppm). This observed trend could be attributed to the use of untreated organic manure, poor waste management and disposal practices, and the use of unsafe portable water for the preparations. It signals an epidemiological timed bomb that should be prevented by the Foods and Drug regulatory bodies.
 
Key words: Epidemiology, heavy metal, herbal bitter preparations, waste disposal, waste management.