African Journal of Biochemistry Research
Subscribe to AJBR
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 2B1554763391


Vol.11(3), pp. 12-17 , March 2017
https://doi.org/10.5897/AJBR2016.0916
ISSN: 1996-0778


 Total Views: 0
 Downloaded: 0

Full Length Research Paper

GC-MS/FT-IR screening of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich Fruit



Okereke S. C.
  • Okereke S. C.
  • Department of Biochemistry, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria
  • Google Scholar
Arunsi U. O.
  • Arunsi U. O.
  • Department of Biochemistry, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria
  • Google Scholar
Nosiri C. I.
  • Nosiri C. I.
  • Department of Biochemistry, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 17 November 2016  Accepted: 18 January 2017  Published: 31 March 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


The present study was aimed at identifying the functional groups and phyto-constituents present in Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A Rich fruit using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), spectroscopy. FTIR method was performed using Perkin Elmer Spectrophotometer and the characteristic peaks were detected. The phytochemical constituents were screened by GC-MS method and the compound detection employed the NIST Ver. 2.0 year 2005 library. The results of the GC-MS analysis showed different peaks determining the presence of 15 phytochemical compounds in the fruit extract of A. aetiopica. The phyto-constituents with their percentage areas include β-Ylangene(2.85%), 1,6-Cyclodecadiene, 1-methyl-5-methylene-8- (1-methylene)-, [s-(E,E)]- (1.71%); (-)-Spathulenol (1.23%);Trans-Z-α-Bisabolene epoxide (1.68%); n-Hexadecanoic acid (2.90%); Manoyl oxide (2.51%); Linoleic acid (8.14%); Oleic acid (3.13%); Cis-Z-α-Bisabolene (1.34%); Pimara-7,15-diene-3-one (8.86%); 1-Heptatricotanol (2.07%); Kaur-1b-ene (6.59%); β-Pimaric acid (36.39%); Doconexent (1.66%) and Androstan-17-one, 3-ethyl-3-hydroxyl-, (5a)- (17.48%). The result of the FTIR spectroscopic studies revealed the presence of arenes, alcohols, phenols, carboxylic acids, ethers, aromatics, aryl ketone, alkenes, saturated aldehyde and phenols. The findings of the study revealed that the GC-MS and FTIR spectral analyses of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich fruit extract composed of various bioactive compounds which have are used in ethnomedicine to treat and cure infections and diseases.

 

Key words: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR), Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), phytochemical, Xylopia aethiopica.

Anand T, Gokulakrishnan K (2012). Phytochemical analysis of Hybanthus enneaspermus using UV, FTIR and GC- MS.
Crossref

 

Asekun OT, Adeniyi BA (2004). Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of the Fruit Essential Oils of Xylopia aetiopica from Nigeria. Fitoterapia 75:368-370.
Crossref

 
 

Birkett MA, Al Abassi S, Krober T, Chamberlain K, Hooper AM, Guerin PM, Pettersson J, Pickett JA, Slade R, Wadhams LJ (2008). Antiectoparasitic activity of the gum resin, gum haggar, from the East Africa plant, Commiphor aholtziana. Phytochemical 69:1710-1715.
Crossref

 
 

Bruce TJA, Birkett MA, Blande J, Hooper AM, Martin JL, Khambay B, Prosser I, Smart LE, Wadhams LJ (2005). Response of economically important aphids to components of Hemizygia petiolata essential oil. Pest Manage. Sci. 61:1115-1121.
Crossref

 
 

Burkhill HM (1985). The useful plants of West Africa.2nd Edn. Royal Botanic Gardens, 1 (A-D). pp. 130-132.

 
 

Devi I, Amutha J, Muthu AK (2014). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of bioactive constituents in the ethanolic extract of Saccharum spontaneum Linn. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 6(2):755-759.

 
 

Duke J (1998). Duke's phytochmical and ethnobotanical databases. Available at: www.ars-grin.gov/duke/. Accessed 12/09/2016.

 
 

Ekanem AP, Udo FV (2009). African natural plant products: New discoveries and challenges in chemistry and quality. ACS publications. pp. 135-147.

 
 

Enemchukwu BN, Erimujor SO, Ubaoji KI (2014). Phytochemical screening and biochemical effects of aqueous seed extract of Xylopia aethiopica (Uda) on selected haematological indices in male wistar albino rats. The Bioscientist 2(1):103-109.

 
 

Faleye FJ, Ogundaini OA (2012). Evaluation of anti-oxidant and antimicrobial activities of two isolates from Aspilia Africana. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 3(7):135-138.

 
 

Florence AR, Jeeva S (2015). FTIR and GC-MS spectral analysis of Gmelina asiatica L. leaves. Sci. Res. Rep. 5(2):125-136.

 
 

Griffiths PR, Haseth JA (1986). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. New York, Willey.

 
 

Guesnet P, Alessandri JM (2011). Docosahexanoic acid (DHA) and the developing central nervous system (CNS) – Implication for dietary recommendation. Biochimie 93(1):7-12.
Crossref

 
 

Hamadan DI, Abdulla RH, Mohamed ME, El-Shazly AM (2013). Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni) cultivated in Egypt. J. Pharmacogn. Phytother. 5(5):83-9.

 
 

Hites AR (1997). Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy: Handbook of Instrumental Techniques for Analytical Chemistry. pp. 609-611.

 
 

Hutschenreuther A, Birkemeyer C, Grotzinger K, Straubinger RK, Rauwald HW (2010). Growth inhibiting activity of volatile oil from Cistuscreticus L. against Borrelia burgdorferi s.s in vitro. Pharmazie 65(4):290-295.

 
 

Ikeyi PA, Omeh NY (2014). A review of the Ethnotherapeutics of medicinal plants used in traditional/alternative medicinal practice in Eastern Nigeria. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci. 3(1):675-683.

 
 

Ju EM, SE Lee, HJ Hwang, JH Kim (2004). Antioxidant and anticancer activity of extract from Betulaplatyphylla var. Japonica. Life Sci. 74(8):1013-1026.
Crossref

 
 

Kalaivani CS, Sathish SS, Janakiraman N, Johnson M (2012). GC-MS medicinally important plant. Int. J. Med. Aromat. Plants 2(1):69-74.

 
 

Kiran SR, Devi PS (2007). Evaluation of mosquitocidal activity of essential oil and sesquiterpenes from leaves of Chloroxylon swietenia DC. Parasitol. Res. 101:413-418.
Crossref

 
 

Kumar KJ, Prasad DAG (2011). Identification and comparison of biomolecules in medicinal plants of Tephrosiatinctoria and Atylosia albicans by using FTIR. Rom. J. Biophys. 21(1):63-71.

 
 

Langenheim JH (1994). Higher plant terpenoids: A phytocentric overview of their ecological roles. J. Chem. Ecol. 20:1223-1280.
Crossref

 
 

Mishana NR, Abbiw DK, Addae-Mensah I, Adjanouhoun E, Ahyi MRA, Ekpere JA, Enow-Orock EG, Gbile ZO, Noamesi GK, Odei MA, Odunlami H, Oteng-Yeboah AA, Sarpong K, Sofowora A, Tackie AN (2000). Traditional Medicine and Pharmacopoeia, Contribution to the revision of ethnobotanical and Floristic Studies in Ghana. OAU/STRC Tech. Rep. P 67.

 
 

Mishra D, Joshi S, Sah SP, Dev A, Genga B (2011). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Senecioru finervis DC. (Asteraceae). Indian J. Nat. Prod. Resour. 2(1):44-47.

 
 

Nnodim JK, Nwanjo HU, Okolie NJ, Opara AU, Nwosu DC, OKoroiwu I, Dike J, Okorie H, Nwadike CN, Uduji HI (2013). Effects of Xylopia Aethiopica fruits on reproductive hormonal level in rats. Glob. J. Med. Plant Res. 1(1):29-31.

 
 

Okwu DE, Jossiah C (2006). Evaluation of the chemical composition of two Nigerian medicinal plants. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 5(4):357-361.

 
 

Prakasia PP, Nair AS (2015). Chemical fingerprint of essential oil components from fresh leaves of Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) Correa. Pharma Innov. J. 3(12):50-56.

 
 

Somova LI, FO Shode, K Moodley, Y Govender (2001).Cardiovascular and Diuretic activity of Kaurene Derivatives of Xylopia aethiopica and Alepidea amatymbica. J. Ethnopharmacol. 77:165-174.
Crossref

 
 

Srinivasan K, Sivasubramanian S, Kumaravel S (2014). Phytochemical profiling and GCMS study of Adhatodavasicaleaves. Int. J. Pharma Bio Sci. 5(4):714-720.

 
 

Telascrea M, de Araújo CC, Marques MOM, Facanali R, de Moraes PLR, Cavalheiro AJ (2007). Essential oil leaves of Cryptocaryam andioccana Meisner (Lauraceae): Composition and intraspecific chemical variability. Biochem. System. Ecol. 35:222-232.
Crossref

 
 

Uzer, A., Ercag, E. and Apak, R. (2005).Selective spectrophotometric determination of TNT in soil and water with dicyclohexylamine extraction. Anal. Chim. Acta, 534:307-317.
Crossref

 
 

Yun-Jie, X., Jui-Hsin, S., Bo-Wei, C., Yen-Ju, T., Yang-Chang, W. and Jyh-Horng, S. (2013).Oxygenated ylangene-derived sesquiterpenoids from the soft coral Lemnalia philippinensis. Marine Drugs 11: 3735-3741.
Crossref

 

 


APA Okereke, S. C., Arunsi, U. O. & Nosiri, C. I. (2017). GC-MS/FT-IR screening of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich Fruit. African Journal of Biochemistry Research , 11(3), 12-17.
Chicago Okereke S. C., Arunsi U. O. and Nosiri C. I.. "GC-MS/FT-IR screening of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich Fruit." African Journal of Biochemistry Research 11, no. 3 (2017): 12-17.
MLA Okereke S. C., Arunsi U. O. and Nosiri C. I.. "GC-MS/FT-IR screening of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich Fruit." African Journal of Biochemistry Research 11.3 (2017): 12-17.
   
DOI https://doi.org/10.5897/AJBR2016.0916
URL http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/AJBR/article-abstract/2B1554763391

Subscription Form