African Journal of Business Management
Subscribe to AJBM
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - AD057D515397


Vol.7(19), pp. 1927-1937 , May 2013
DOI: 10.5897/AJBM2013.1633
ISSN: 1993-8233



Full Length Research Paper

The effect of entrepreneurial orientation on the internationalization of SMEs in developing countries


Paul Taylor




University of the West Indies, Jamaica


Email: palt424@yahoo.com






 Accepted: 08 May 2013  Published: 21 May 2013

Copyright © 2013 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


The increasing globalization of markets and businesses is playing a major role on the pace at which small and medium enterprises (SMEs) internationalize. Within this context, the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and the internationalization of SMEs in developing countries is an important area of academic research. This paper reviews the literature in an effort to provide an understanding of this relation. It proposes a conceptual model of the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and the internationalization activity of exporting, and advances a number of propositions for additional research. The paper concludes by presenting areas for future research regarding the entrepreneurial orientation–internationalization (export performance) relationship.

 

Key words: Developing countries, entrepreneurial orientation, export performance, internationalization, innovativeness, pro-activeness, risk taking and SMEs

Armario JM, Ruiz DM, Armario EM (2008). Market orientation and internationalization in small and medium-sized enterprises. J. Small Bus. Manage. 46(4):485 - 511.
 
Baker WE, Sinkula JM (2009). The complementary effects of market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation on profitability in small businesses. J. Small Bus. Manage. 47(4):443-464.
 
Basile A (2012). Entrepreneurial orientation in SMEs: risk taking to enter international markets. Far East J. Psychol. Bus. 7(2):1-21.
 
Becherer RC, Maurer JG (1997). The moderating effect of environmental variables on the entrepreneurial and marketing orientation of entrepreneur-led firms. Entrep. Theory Pract. 22(1):47-58.
 
Bilkey WJ, Tesar G (1977).The export behaviour of smaller-sized Wisconsin manufacturing firms. J. Int. Bus. Stud. 8:93-98.
 
Buckley PJ, Ghauri PN (2006). The internationalization of the firm: a reader. International Thomson Business Press.
 
Calof JL, Beamish PW (1995). Adapting to foreign markets: explaining internationalization. Int. Bus. Rev. 4(2):115-131.
 
Chandler GN, Jansen E (1992). The founder's self assessed competence and venture performance. J. Bus. Vent. 7: 223-236.
 
Child J, Chung L, Davies H (2003). The performance of cross-border units in China: a test of natural selection, strategic choice and contingency theories. J. Int. Bus. Stud. 34:242-254.
 
Coulthard M (2007). The role of entrepreneurial orientation on firm performance and the potential influence of relational dynamism. J. Glob. Bus. Technol. 3(1):29-39.
 
Covin JG, Slevin DP (1986). The development and testing of an
 
organizational-level entrepreneurship scale. In Frontiers of entrepreneurship research, edited by Ronstadt R, Hornaday JA, Peterson R, and Vesper KH. Babson College: Wellesley, MA: pp.628-639.
 
Covin JG, Slevin DP (1989). Strategic management of small firms in
 
hostile and benign environments. Strat. Manage. J. 10:75-87.
 
Covin JG, Slevin DP (1991). A conceptual model of entrepreneurship as firm behavior. Entrep. Theory Pract.16(1):7-25.
 
Ellis P (2000). Social ties and foreign market entry. J. Int. Bus. Stud. 31(3):443-470.
 
Eshghi A (1992). Attitude-behavior inconsistency in exporting. Int. Market. Rev. 9(3):40-61.
 
Fairoz FM, Hirobumi T, Tanaka Y (2010). Entrepreneurial orientation and business performance of small and medium scale enterprises of Hambantota District Sri Lanka. Asian Soc. Sci. 6(3):34-46. Retrieved Dec. 18, 2012, from http://journal.ccsenet.org/index.php/ass/article/download/5374/4486.
 
Fletcher R (2001). A holistic approach to internationalization. Int. Bus. Rev. 10:25-49.
 
Frese M, Brantjes A, Hoorn R (2002). Psychological success factors of small scale businesses in Namibia: the roles of strategy process, entrepreneurial orientation and the environment. J. Dev. Entrep. 7(3):259-282.
 
Frese M, DeKruif M (2000). Psychological success factors of entrepreneurship in Africa: a selective literature review. In Success and failure of microbusiness owners in Africa: a psychological approach, edited by M Frese. Quorum: Westport, Conn.: pp.1-30.
 
Frese M, Krauss SI, Friedrich C (2000). Microenterprises in Zimbabwe: the function of sociodemographic factors, psychological strategies, personal initiative, and goal setting for entrepreneurial success. In Success and failure of microbusiness owners in Africa: a psychological approach, edited by M. Frese. Quorum: Westport, Conn.: pp.103-130.
 
Huang K-P, Wang C-H, Tseng M-C, Wang KY (2010). A study on entrepreneurial orientation and resource acquisition: the effects of social capital. Afr. J. Bus. Manage. 4(15):3226-3231.
 
Hughes M, Morgan RE (2007). Deconstructing the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and business performance at the embryonic stage of firm growth. Ind. Market. Manage. 36(5):651-661.
 
Hult GTM, Snow CC, Kandemir D (2003). The role of entrepreneurship in building cultural competitiveness in different organizational types. J. Manage. 29(3):401 - 426.
 
Ibeh K, Young S (2001). Exporting as an entrepreneurial act: an empirical study of Nigerian firms. Europ. J. Market. 35(5/6):566-586.
 
Ireland RD, Hitt MA, Sirmon, DG (2003). A model of strategic entrepreneurship: the construct and its dimensions. J. Manage. 29(6):963-989.
 
Johanson J, Vahlne J-E (1977). The internationalisation process of the firm: a model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitments. J. Int. Bus. Stud. 8:23-32.
 
Johanson J, Vahlne JE (1990). The mechanism of internationalism. Int. Market. Rev. 7(4):11-25.
 
Johanson J, Wiedersheim-Paul F (1975). The internationalisation of the firm: four Swedish case studies. J. Manage. Stud. (Oct.):305-322.
 
Kazem A, van der Heijden B (2006). Exporting firms' strategic choices: the case of Egyptian SMEs in the food industry. SAM Adv. Manage J. 71(3):21-33.
 
Keh HT, Nguyen TTM, Ng HP (2007). The effects of entrepreneurial orientation and marketing information on the performance of SMEs. J. Bus. Vent. 22(4):592-611.
 
Knight G (2000). Entrepreneurship and marketing strategy: the SME under globalization. J. Int. Market. 8(2):12-32. Retrieved Dec. 19, 2012, from http://asso.nordnet.fr/adreg/knight.pdf.
 
Knight, GA, Cavusgil ST (1996). The born global firm: a challenge to traditional internationalisation theory. JAI Press: London: Adv. Int. Market. 8:11-26.
 
Kreiser PM, Marino LD, Weaver KM (2002). Assessing the psychometric properties of the entrepreneurial orientation scale: a multi-country analysis. Entrep. Theor. Pract. 26(4):71-94.
 
Kropp F, Lindsay NJ, Shoham A (2005). Technological entrepreneur-
 
ship and small business innovation research programs. Academy of Marketing Science Review volume 2005 no. 07. Retrieved Dec. 5, 2012, from http://www.amsreview.org/ articles/kropp07-2005.pdf.
 
Kropp F, Lindsay NJ, Shoham A (2006). Entrepreneurial, market, and
 
learning orientations and international entrepreneurial business venture performance in South African firms. Int. Market. Rev. 23(5):504-523.
Kropp F, Lindsay NJ, Shoham A (2008). Entrepreneurial orientation and international entrepreneurial business venture startup. Int. J. Entrep. Behav. Res. 14(2):102-117.
 
Kropp F, Zolin R (2005). Technological entrepreneurship: the role of small business innovation research. Programs Acad. of Market. Rev. Retrieved Dec. 5, 2012, from http://www.amsreview.org/ articles/kropp07-2005.pdf.
 
Kuhn B, Sassmannshausen SP, Zollin R (2010). "Entrepreneurial management" as a strategic choice in firm behaviour: linking it with performance. Paper presented at the HTSF Conference inTwente, The Netherlands.
 
Lages LF, Montgomery DB (2004). Export performance as an antecedent of export commitment and marketing strategy adaptation: evidence from small and medium-sized exporters. Eur. J. Market 38(9/10):1186-1195.
 
Lee SM, Lim S (2009). Entrepreneurial orientation and the performance of service business. J. Serv. Bus. 3:1-13.
 
Lee T, Chu W (2011). Entrepreneurial orientation and competitive advantage: the mediation of resource value and rareness. Afr. J. Bus. Manage. 5(33):12797-12809.
 
Leko-Šimi´ M, Horvat J (2006). Risk taking propensity and export performance of Croatian exporters. Manag. Glob. Trans. 4(4):313-326.
 
Leonidou LC, Katsikeas CS (1996). The export development process: an integrative review of the empirical models. J. Int. Bus. Stud. 27(3):517-551.
 
Li C-Y (2012). The influence of entrepreneurial orientation on technology commercialization: the moderating roles of technological turbulence and integration. Afr. J. Bus. Manage. 6(1):370-387.
 
Li H, Huang J-W, Tsai M-T (2009). Entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance: the role of knowledge creation process. Ind. Market. Manage. 38(4):440-449.
 
Li X, Wang J, Liu X (2013). Can locally-recruited R&D personnel significantly contribute to multinational subsidiary innovation in an emerging economy? Int. Bus. Rev. 22(2):639-651.
 
Li Y, Zhao Y, Tan J, Liu Y (2008). Moderating effects of entrepreneurial orientation on market orientation-performance linkage: evidence from Chinese small firms. J. Small Bus. Manage. 46(1):113133.
 
Lieberman M, Montgomery D (1988). First-mover advantages. Strat. Manage J. 9:41-58.
 
Lim JS, Skarkey TW, Kim KI (1991). An empirical test of an export adoption model. Manage. Int. Rev. 31(1):51-62.
 
Liu H, Hou J, Yang P, Ding X-H (2011). Entrepreneurial orientation, organizational capability, and competitive advantage in emerging economies: evidence from China. Afr. J. Bus. Manage. 5(10):3891-3901.
 
López-Duarte C, Vidal-Suárez MM (2010). External uncertainty and entry mode choice: cultural distance, political risk and language diversity. Int. Bus. Rev. 19(6):575-588.
 
Lumpkin GT, Dess GG (1996). Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Acad. Manage. Rev. 21(1):135-172.
 
Lumpkin GT, Dess GG (2001). Linking two dimensions of entre-preneurial orientation to firm performance: the moderating role of environment and industry life cycle. J. Bus. Vent. 16(5):429-451.
 
Lyon DW, Lumpkin GT, Dess GG (2000). Enhancing entrepreneurial orientation research: operationalizing and measuring a key strategic decision making process. J. Manage. 26(5):1055-1085.
 
Madsen TK, Servais P (1997). The internationalisation of born globals: an evolutionary process? Int. Bus. Rev. 6(6):561-583.
 
Matthews P (2007). ICT assimilation and SME expansion. J. Int. Dev. 19(6):817-827.
 
McDougall PP, Oviatt BM (2000). International entrepreneurship: the
 
intersection of two research parts. Acad. Manage. J. 43(5):902-906.
 
Mengue N, Auh S (2006). Creating a firm-level dynamic capability through capitalizing on market orientation and Innovativeness. J. Acad. Market. Sci. 24:63-73.
 
Miller D (1983). The correlates of entrepreneurship in three types of firms. Manage. Sci. 29(7):770-791.
 
Miller D, Friesen P (1982). Innovation in conservative and entrepreneurial firms: two models of strategic momentum. Strat. Manage. J. 3:1-25.
 
Miller D, Toulouse J (1986). Chief executive personality and corporate strategy and structure in small firms. Manage. Sci. 32(11):1389-1409.
 
Moghaddam FM, Hamid ABBA, Aliakbar E (2012). Management influence on the export performance of firms: a review of the empirical literature 1989–2009. Afr. J. Bus. Manage. 6(15):5150-5158.
 
Morgan RE, Katsikeas CS (1997). Theories of international trade, foreign direct investment, and firm internationalization: a critique. Manage. Decis. 35(1):48-78.
 
Mostafa RHA, Wheeler C, Jones MV (2005). Entrepreneurial orientation, commitment to the internet and export performance in small and medium sized exporting firms. J. Int. Entrep. 3:291-302.
 
Naman JL, Slevin DP (1993). Entrepreneurship and the concept of fit: a model and empirical tests. Strat. Manage. J. 15(2):137-153.
 
Okpara JO (2009). Entrepreneurial orientation and export performance: evidence from an emerging economy. Int. Rev. Bus. Res. Papers 5(6):195-211.
 
Omar O (2009). International marketing. Palgrave MacMillan.
 
Oviatt BM, McDougall PP (2005). Toward a theory of international new ventures. J. Int. Bus. Stud. 36(1):29-41.
 
Porter M (1980). Competitive strategy. New York: Free Press.
 
Quince T, Whittaker H (2003). Entrepreneurial orientation and entrepreneurs' intentions and objectives. Working Paper No. 271. ESRC Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge.
 
Rasheed HS (2005). Foreign entry mode and performance: the moderating effects of environments. J. Small Bus. Manage. 43(1):41-54.
 
Rauch A, Wiklund J, Frese M, Lumpkin GT (2004). Entrepreneurial orientation and business performance: cumulative empirical evidence. Paper presented at the 23rd Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference. Glasgow, UK.
 
Rauch A, Wiklund J, Lumpkin GT, Frese M (2009). Entrepreneurial orientation and business performance: an assessment of past research and suggestions for the future. Entrep. Theory Pract. 33:761-787.
 
Rees M (2011). Internationalisation and innovation – the case of Victorian first SME exporters. Retrieved Oct. 16, 2012, from http://www.swinburne.edu.au/lib/ir/onlineconferences/agse2011/000130.pdf.
 
Reid SD (1981). Firm internationalisation, transaction costs and strategic choice. Int. Market. Rev. 1(2):44-56.
 
Rialp A, Rialp J, Knight GA (2005). The phenomenon of early internationalizing firms: what do we know after a decade (1993-2003) of scientific inquiry? Int. Bus. Rev. 14(2):147-166.
 
Rogers EM (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York: Free Press.
 
Runyan R, Drodge C, Swinney J (2008). Entrepreneurial orientation versus small business orientation: what are their relationships to firm performance? J. Small. Bus. Manage. 46(4):567-588.
 
Samiee S, Walters PGP, DuBois FL (1993). Exporting as an innovative behaviour: an empirical investigation. Int. Market. Rev. 10(3):5-25.
 
Schumpeter JA (1934). The theory of economic development. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA.
 
Schumpeter JA (1942). Capitalism, socialism, and democracy. Harper & Brothers: New York.
 
Stevenson HH, Jarillo JC (1990). A paradigm of entrepreneurship: entrepreneurial management. Strat. Manage. J. 11:17-27.
 
Swierczek FW, Thai TH (2003). Motivation, entrepreneurship and the performance of SMEs in Vietnam. J. Enterp. Cult. 11(1):47-68.
 
Tayauova G (2011). The impact of international entrepreneurial orientation on strategic adaptation. Procedia Soc. Behav. Sci.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.09.078
 
24:571-578.
 
Verhees FJHM, Meulenberg MTG (2004). Market orientation, innovativeness, product innovation, and performance in small firms. J. Small Bus. Manage. 42(2):134-154.
 
Wang CL (2008). Entrepreneurial orientation, learning orientation, and firm performance. Entrep. Theory Pract. 32(4):635-657.
 
Weerawardena J, Mort GS, Liesch PW, Knight G (2007). Conceptualizing accelerated internationalization in the born global firm: a dynamic capabilities perspective. J. World Bus. 42:294-306.
 
Welch LS, Luostarinen R (1988). Internationalization: evolution of a concept. J. of Gen. Manage. 14(2): 34 - 55.
 
Wickramasekera R, Oczkowski E (2006). Stage models re-visited: a measure of the stage of internationalisation of a firm. Manage. Int. Rev. 46(1):39-55.
 
Wiklund J (1999). The sustainability of the entrepreneurial orientation-performance relationship. Entrep. Theory Pract. 24(1):37-48.
 
Wiklund J, Shepherd D (2003). Knowledge-based resources, entrepreneurial orientation, and the performance of small and medium sized businesses. Strat. Manage. J. 24(13):1307-1314.
 
Wiklund J, Shepherd D (2005). Entrepreneurial orientation and small business: a configurational approach. J. Bus. Vent. 20(1):71-91.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4337/9781845425692
 
Williams DA (2008). Export stimulation of micro- and small locally owned firms from emerging environments: new evidence. J. Int. Entrep. 6:101-122.
 
¬¬¬¬¬ Williams DA (2009). Determinants of export market destination for outputs from small locally-owned firms. Small Bus. Inst. J. 4:15-47.
 
Wu W-P, Leung A (2005). Does a micro-macro link exist between managerial value of reciprocity, social capital and firm performance? the case of SMEs in China. Asia Pac. J. Manage. 22(4):445-463.
 
Yang CW (2008). The relationships among leadership styles, entrepreneurial orientation and business performance. Manag. Glob. Trans. 6(3):257-275.
 
Yeoh PL (2004). International learning: antecedents and performance implications among newly internationalizing companies in an exporting context. Int. Market. Rev. 21(4/5):511- 535.
 
Yeoh P, Jeong I (1995). Contingency relationships between entrepreneurship, export channel structure and environment: a proposed conceptual model of export performance. Eur. J. Market. 29(8):95-115.
 
Yusuf A (2002). Environmental uncertainty, the entrepreneurial orientation of business ventures and performance. Int. J. Commun. Manage. 12(3-4):83-103.
 
Zahra SA (1993). A conceptual model of entrepreneurship as firm behaviour: a critique and extension. Entrep. Theory Pract. 16(4):5-21.
 
Zahra SA (2005). A theory of international new ventures: a decade of research. J. Int. Bus. Stud. 36(1):20-28.
 
Zahra SA, George G (2002). International entrepreneurship: the current status of the field and future research agenda. In Strategic entrepreneurship: creating a new mindset, edited by Hitt MA, Ireland RD, Camp SM, Sexton DL. Blackwell Publishers: Oxford, UK: 255-288.
 
Zhou KZ, Brown JR, Dev CS, Agarwal S (2007a). The effects of customer and competitor orientations on performance in global markets: a contingency analysis. J. Int. Bus. Stud. 38(2):303-319.
 
Zhou L, Wu W-P, Luo X (2007b). Internationalization and the performance of born-global SMEs: the mediating role of social networks. J. Int. Bus. Stud. 38:673-690.

 


APA (2013). The effect of entrepreneurial orientation on the internationalization of SMEs in developing countries. African Journal of Business Management, 7(19), 1927-1937.
Chicago Paul Taylor. "The effect of entrepreneurial orientation on the internationalization of SMEs in developing countries." African Journal of Business Management 7, no. 19 (2013): 1927-1937.
MLA Paul Taylor. "The effect of entrepreneurial orientation on the internationalization of SMEs in developing countries." African Journal of Business Management 7.19 (2013): 1927-1937.
   
DOI 10.5897/AJBM2013.1633
URL http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/AJBM/article-abstract/AD057D515397

Subscription Form

(default) 34 queries took 8726 ms
NrQueryErrorAffectedNum. rowsTook (ms)
1SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
2SELECT `Journal`.`id`, `Journal`.`journal_category_id`, `Journal`.`name`, `Journal`.`issn`, `Journal`.`abbrev`, `Journal`.`pub_abbrev`, `Journal`.`banner`, `Journal`.`colour`, `Journal`.`email`, `Journal`.`password`, `Journal`.`instruction_for_author_file`, `Journal`.`reviewers_guide_file`, `Journal`.`about_text`, `Journal`.`submit_manuscript`, `Journal`.`instructions_for_authors`, `Journal`.`pub_ethics`, `Journal`.`abstracting`, `Journal`.`call_for_papers`, `Journal`.`faculty_1000`, `Journal`.`editors`, `Journal`.`journal_issue_count`, `Journal`.`journ_handling_fee`, `Journal`.`founding_editor`, `Journal`.`founding_editor_address`, `Journal`.`created`, `Journal`.`modified`, `Journal`.`subdomain`, `JournalCategory`.`id`, `JournalCategory`.`name`, `JournalCategory`.`journal_count`, `JournalCategory`.`description`, `JournalCategory`.`created`, `JournalCategory`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`journals` AS `Journal` LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_categories` AS `JournalCategory` ON (`Journal`.`journal_category_id` = `JournalCategory`.`id`) WHERE `Journal`.`abbrev` = 'AJBM' LIMIT 1110
3SELECT `JournalIssue`.`id`, `JournalIssue`.`journal_id`, `JournalIssue`.`archive_id`, `JournalIssue`.`volume_number`, `JournalIssue`.`issue_number`, `JournalIssue`.`page_range`, `JournalIssue`.`edition`, `JournalIssue`.`month`, `JournalIssue`.`picture`, `JournalIssue`.`home_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`current_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`articles_count`, `JournalIssue`.`e-book`, `JournalIssue`.`issuu_embed`, `JournalIssue`.`subject`, `JournalIssue`.`created`, `JournalIssue`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_issues` AS `JournalIssue` WHERE `JournalIssue`.`journal_id` = (41)2722720
4SELECT `JournalStat`.`id`, `JournalStat`.`journal_id`, `JournalStat`.`name`, `JournalStat`.`value`, `JournalStat`.`ref_link`, `JournalStat`.`description`, `JournalStat`.`created`, `JournalStat`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_stats` AS `JournalStat` WHERE `JournalStat`.`journal_id` = (41)110
5SELECT `JournalSection`.`id`, `JournalSection`.`name`, `JournalSection`.`journal_id`, `JournalSection`.`description`, `JournalSection`.`created`, `JournalSection`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_sections` AS `JournalSection` WHERE `JournalSection`.`journal_id` = (41)110
6SELECT `JournalStat`.`id`, `JournalStat`.`journal_id`, `JournalStat`.`name`, `JournalStat`.`value`, `JournalStat`.`ref_link`, `JournalStat`.`description`, `JournalStat`.`created`, `JournalStat`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_stats` AS `JournalStat` WHERE `JournalStat`.`journal_id` = 41 AND `JournalStat`.`value` <> ''110
7SELECT `JournalIssue`.`id`, `JournalIssue`.`journal_id`, `JournalIssue`.`archive_id`, `JournalIssue`.`volume_number`, `JournalIssue`.`issue_number`, `JournalIssue`.`page_range`, `JournalIssue`.`edition`, `JournalIssue`.`month`, `JournalIssue`.`picture`, `JournalIssue`.`home_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`current_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`articles_count`, `JournalIssue`.`e-book`, `JournalIssue`.`issuu_embed`, `JournalIssue`.`subject`, `JournalIssue`.`created`, `JournalIssue`.`modified`, `Journal`.`id`, `Journal`.`journal_category_id`, `Journal`.`name`, `Journal`.`issn`, `Journal`.`abbrev`, `Journal`.`pub_abbrev`, `Journal`.`banner`, `Journal`.`colour`, `Journal`.`email`, `Journal`.`password`, `Journal`.`instruction_for_author_file`, `Journal`.`reviewers_guide_file`, `Journal`.`about_text`, `Journal`.`submit_manuscript`, `Journal`.`instructions_for_authors`, `Journal`.`pub_ethics`, `Journal`.`abstracting`, `Journal`.`call_for_papers`, `Journal`.`faculty_1000`, `Journal`.`editors`, `Journal`.`journal_issue_count`, `Journal`.`journ_handling_fee`, `Journal`.`founding_editor`, `Journal`.`founding_editor_address`, `Journal`.`created`, `Journal`.`modified`, `Journal`.`subdomain`, `Archive`.`id`, `Archive`.`month`, `Archive`.`year`, `Archive`.`created`, `Archive`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_issues` AS `JournalIssue` LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`journals` AS `Journal` ON (`JournalIssue`.`journal_id` = `Journal`.`id`) LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`archives` AS `Archive` ON (`JournalIssue`.`archive_id` = `Archive`.`id`) WHERE `JournalIssue`.`journal_id` = 41 AND `JournalIssue`.`current_issue` = '1' ORDER BY `JournalIssue`.`created` DESC, `JournalIssue`.`month` DESC LIMIT 1110
8SELECT `Article`.`id`, `Article`.`journal_section_id`, `Article`.`journal_issue_id`, `Article`.`article_number`, `Article`.`article_type`, `Article`.`title`, `Article`.`accepted_date`, `Article`.`received_date`, `Article`.`abstract`, `Article`.`abbrev`, `Article`.`full_text`, `Article`.`pages`, `Article`.`doi`, `Article`.`authors_for_citation`, `Article`.`authors`, `Article`.`email`, `Article`.`phone`, `Article`.`address`, `Article`.`has_full_text`, `Article`.`has_reference`, `Article`.`pdf_file`, `Article`.`published`, `Article`.`published_date`, `Article`.`status`, `Article`.`author_id`, `Article`.`created`, `Article`.`modified`, `Article`.`read_count`, `Article`.`shared_count`, `Article`.`download_count`, `Article`.`other_links`, `Article`.`references` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`articles` AS `Article` WHERE `Article`.`journal_issue_id` = (9103)440
9SELECT COUNT(*) AS `count` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`articles` AS `Article` LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_issues` AS `JournalIssue` ON (`Article`.`journal_issue_id` = `JournalIssue`.`id`) LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_sections` AS `JournalSection` ON (`Article`.`journal_section_id` = `JournalSection`.`id`) LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`authors` AS `Author` ON (`Article`.`author_id` = `Author`.`id`) WHERE `JournalIssue`.`journal_id` =41 AND `Article`.`published` = 1110
10SELECT `Article`.`id`, `Article`.`journal_section_id`, `Article`.`journal_issue_id`, `Article`.`article_number`, `Article`.`article_type`, `Article`.`title`, `Article`.`accepted_date`, `Article`.`received_date`, `Article`.`abstract`, `Article`.`abbrev`, `Article`.`full_text`, `Article`.`pages`, `Article`.`doi`, `Article`.`authors_for_citation`, `Article`.`authors`, `Article`.`email`, `Article`.`phone`, `Article`.`address`, `Article`.`has_full_text`, `Article`.`has_reference`, `Article`.`pdf_file`, `Article`.`published`, `Article`.`published_date`, `Article`.`status`, `Article`.`author_id`, `Article`.`created`, `Article`.`modified`, `Article`.`read_count`, `Article`.`shared_count`, `Article`.`download_count`, `Article`.`other_links`, `Article`.`references`, `JournalIssue`.`id`, `JournalIssue`.`journal_id`, `JournalIssue`.`archive_id`, `JournalIssue`.`volume_number`, `JournalIssue`.`issue_number`, `JournalIssue`.`page_range`, `JournalIssue`.`edition`, `JournalIssue`.`month`, `JournalIssue`.`picture`, `JournalIssue`.`home_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`current_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`articles_count`, `JournalIssue`.`e-book`, `JournalIssue`.`issuu_embed`, `JournalIssue`.`subject`, `JournalIssue`.`created`, `JournalIssue`.`modified`, `JournalSection`.`id`, `JournalSection`.`name`, `JournalSection`.`journal_id`, `JournalSection`.`description`, `JournalSection`.`created`, `JournalSection`.`modified`, `Author`.`id`, `Author`.`surname`, `Author`.`other_names`, `Author`.`email`, `Author`.`phone`, `Author`.`sex`, `Author`.`institution`, `Author`.`address`, `Author`.`specialization`, `Author`.`country`, `Author`.`password`, `Author`.`last_login`, `Author`.`created`, `Author`.`title`, `Author`.`affiliation`, `Author`.`blacklist_id` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`articles` AS `Article` LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_issues` AS `JournalIssue` ON (`Article`.`journal_issue_id` = `JournalIssue`.`id`) LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_sections` AS `JournalSection` ON (`Article`.`journal_section_id` = `JournalSection`.`id`) LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`authors` AS `Author` ON (`Article`.`author_id` = `Author`.`id`) WHERE `Article`.`article_number` = 'AD057D515397' LIMIT 11120
11SELECT `AbstractTranslation`.`id`, `AbstractTranslation`.`article_id`, `AbstractTranslation`.`language`, `AbstractTranslation`.`abstract`, `AbstractTranslation`.`published`, `AbstractTranslation`.`created`, `AbstractTranslation`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`abstract_translations` AS `AbstractTranslation` WHERE `AbstractTranslation`.`article_id` = (1009905428)000
12SELECT `ArticleTranslation`.`id`, `ArticleTranslation`.`article_id`, `ArticleTranslation`.`name`, `ArticleTranslation`.`url`, `ArticleTranslation`.`translator`, `ArticleTranslation`.`translator_url`, `ArticleTranslation`.`created`, `ArticleTranslation`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`article_translations` AS `ArticleTranslation` WHERE `ArticleTranslation`.`article_id` = (1009905428)000
13SELECT `ArticleAuthor`.`id`, `ArticleAuthor`.`name`, `ArticleAuthor`.`article_id`, `ArticleAuthor`.`email`, `ArticleAuthor`.`phone`, `ArticleAuthor`.`department`, `ArticleAuthor`.`affiliation`, `ArticleAuthor`.`country`, `ArticleAuthor`.`created`, `ArticleAuthor`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`article_authors` AS `ArticleAuthor` WHERE `ArticleAuthor`.`article_id` = (1009905428)000
14SELECT `ArticleReference`.`id`, `ArticleReference`.`title`, `ArticleReference`.`article_id`, `ArticleReference`.`authors`, `ArticleReference`.`year`, `ArticleReference`.`volume`, `ArticleReference`.`pages`, `ArticleReference`.`journal_title`, `ArticleReference`.`google_scholar`, `ArticleReference`.`pub_med`, `ArticleReference`.`url`, `ArticleReference`.`created`, `ArticleReference`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`article_references` AS `ArticleReference` WHERE `ArticleReference`.`article_id` = (1009905428)000
15SELECT `JournalIssue`.`id`, `JournalIssue`.`journal_id`, `JournalIssue`.`archive_id`, `JournalIssue`.`volume_number`, `JournalIssue`.`issue_number`, `JournalIssue`.`page_range`, `JournalIssue`.`edition`, `JournalIssue`.`month`, `JournalIssue`.`picture`, `JournalIssue`.`home_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`current_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`articles_count`, `JournalIssue`.`e-book`, `JournalIssue`.`issuu_embed`, `JournalIssue`.`subject`, `JournalIssue`.`created`, `JournalIssue`.`modified`, `Journal`.`id`, `Journal`.`journal_category_id`, `Journal`.`name`, `Journal`.`issn`, `Journal`.`abbrev`, `Journal`.`pub_abbrev`, `Journal`.`banner`, `Journal`.`colour`, `Journal`.`email`, `Journal`.`password`, `Journal`.`instruction_for_author_file`, `Journal`.`reviewers_guide_file`, `Journal`.`about_text`, `Journal`.`submit_manuscript`, `Journal`.`instructions_for_authors`, `Journal`.`pub_ethics`, `Journal`.`abstracting`, `Journal`.`call_for_papers`, `Journal`.`faculty_1000`, `Journal`.`editors`, `Journal`.`journal_issue_count`, `Journal`.`journ_handling_fee`, `Journal`.`founding_editor`, `Journal`.`founding_editor_address`, `Journal`.`created`, `Journal`.`modified`, `Journal`.`subdomain`, `Archive`.`id`, `Archive`.`month`, `Archive`.`year`, `Archive`.`created`, `Archive`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_issues` AS `JournalIssue` LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`journals` AS `Journal` ON (`JournalIssue`.`journal_id` = `Journal`.`id`) LEFT JOIN `admin_academic_journals`.`archives` AS `Archive` ON (`JournalIssue`.`archive_id` = `Archive`.`id`) WHERE `JournalIssue`.`id` = 3415 LIMIT 1110
16SELECT `Article`.`id`, `Article`.`journal_section_id`, `Article`.`journal_issue_id`, `Article`.`article_number`, `Article`.`article_type`, `Article`.`title`, `Article`.`accepted_date`, `Article`.`received_date`, `Article`.`abstract`, `Article`.`abbrev`, `Article`.`full_text`, `Article`.`pages`, `Article`.`doi`, `Article`.`authors_for_citation`, `Article`.`authors`, `Article`.`email`, `Article`.`phone`, `Article`.`address`, `Article`.`has_full_text`, `Article`.`has_reference`, `Article`.`pdf_file`, `Article`.`published`, `Article`.`published_date`, `Article`.`status`, `Article`.`author_id`, `Article`.`created`, `Article`.`modified`, `Article`.`read_count`, `Article`.`shared_count`, `Article`.`download_count`, `Article`.`other_links`, `Article`.`references` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`articles` AS `Article` WHERE `Article`.`journal_issue_id` = (3415)550
17SELECT `ArticleMetric`.`id`, `ArticleMetric`.`article_id`, `ArticleMetric`.`ip`, `ArticleMetric`.`read_t`, `ArticleMetric`.`count`, `ArticleMetric`.`country`, `ArticleMetric`.`region`, `ArticleMetric`.`continent`, `ArticleMetric`.`created`, `ArticleMetric`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`article_metrics` AS `ArticleMetric` WHERE `ArticleMetric`.`article_id` = 1009905428 AND `ArticleMetric`.`read_t` = 'article-abstract' AND `ArticleMetric`.`ip` = '54.159.113.182' AND DATE_FORMAT(`ArticleMetric`.`created`, '%Y-%m-%d') = '2017-09-20' LIMIT 1004353
18BEGIN004353
19INSERT INTO `admin_academic_journals`.`article_metrics` (`read_t`, `count`, `article_id`, `ip`, `country`, `region`, `continent`, `modified`, `created`) VALUES ('article-abstract', 1, 1009905428, '54.159.113.182', 'United States', 'Virginia', 'North America', '2017-09-20 01:24:12', '2017-09-20 01:24:12')110
20COMMIT110
21SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
22SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
23SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
24SELECT `JournalIssue`.`id`, `JournalIssue`.`journal_id`, `JournalIssue`.`archive_id`, `JournalIssue`.`volume_number`, `JournalIssue`.`issue_number`, `JournalIssue`.`page_range`, `JournalIssue`.`edition`, `JournalIssue`.`month`, `JournalIssue`.`picture`, `JournalIssue`.`home_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`current_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`articles_count`, `JournalIssue`.`e-book`, `JournalIssue`.`issuu_embed`, `JournalIssue`.`subject`, `JournalIssue`.`created`, `JournalIssue`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_issues` AS `JournalIssue` WHERE `JournalIssue`.`id` = 3415 LIMIT 1110
25SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
26SELECT `JournalIssue`.`id`, `JournalIssue`.`journal_id`, `JournalIssue`.`archive_id`, `JournalIssue`.`volume_number`, `JournalIssue`.`issue_number`, `JournalIssue`.`page_range`, `JournalIssue`.`edition`, `JournalIssue`.`month`, `JournalIssue`.`picture`, `JournalIssue`.`home_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`current_issue`, `JournalIssue`.`articles_count`, `JournalIssue`.`e-book`, `JournalIssue`.`issuu_embed`, `JournalIssue`.`subject`, `JournalIssue`.`created`, `JournalIssue`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`journal_issues` AS `JournalIssue` WHERE `JournalIssue`.`id` = 3415 LIMIT 1110
27SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
28SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
29SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
30SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
31SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
32SELECT `Logo`.`id`, `Logo`.`name`, `Logo`.`banner`, `Logo`.`description`, `Logo`.`created`, `Logo`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`logos` AS `Logo` WHERE `Logo`.`id` = 1 LIMIT 1110
33SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`description`, `Setting`.`created`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`settings` AS `Setting` WHERE 1 = 1660
34SELECT `Journal`.`id`, `Journal`.`journal_category_id`, `Journal`.`name`, `Journal`.`issn`, `Journal`.`abbrev`, `Journal`.`pub_abbrev`, `Journal`.`banner`, `Journal`.`colour`, `Journal`.`email`, `Journal`.`password`, `Journal`.`instruction_for_author_file`, `Journal`.`reviewers_guide_file`, `Journal`.`about_text`, `Journal`.`submit_manuscript`, `Journal`.`instructions_for_authors`, `Journal`.`pub_ethics`, `Journal`.`abstracting`, `Journal`.`call_for_papers`, `Journal`.`faculty_1000`, `Journal`.`editors`, `Journal`.`journal_issue_count`, `Journal`.`journ_handling_fee`, `Journal`.`founding_editor`, `Journal`.`founding_editor_address`, `Journal`.`created`, `Journal`.`modified`, `Journal`.`subdomain` FROM `admin_academic_journals`.`journals` AS `Journal` WHERE `Journal`.`id` = 41 LIMIT 1110