African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 5765

Full Length Research Paper

Phytotoxicity of Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq. leaves extract

Regildo Márcio Gonçalves da Silva
  • Regildo Márcio Gonçalves da Silva
  • Departamento de Ciências Biológicas - Laboratório de Fitoterápicos, Faculdade de Ciências e Letras de Assis, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Avenida Dom Antônio 2100, CEP: 19806-900, Assis, São Paulo, Brasil.
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Paulo José Rodrigues Merle
  • Paulo José Rodrigues Merle
  • Departamento de Ciências Biológicas - Laboratório de Fitoterápicos, Faculdade de Ciências e Letras de Assis, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Avenida Dom Antônio 2100, CEP: 19806-900, Assis, São Paulo, Brasil.
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Gustavo Rafagnin Martins
  • Gustavo Rafagnin Martins
  • Departamento de Ciências Biológicas - Laboratório de Fitoterápicos, Faculdade de Ciências e Letras de Assis, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Avenida Dom Antônio 2100, CEP: 19806-900, Assis, São Paulo, Brasil.
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Gustavo Franciscatti Mecina
  • Gustavo Franciscatti Mecina
  • Departamento de Ciências Biológicas - Laboratório de Fitoterápicos, Faculdade de Ciências e Letras de Assis, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Avenida Dom Antônio 2100, CEP: 19806-900, Assis, São Paulo, Brasil.
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Valter Henrique Marinho dos Santos
  • Valter Henrique Marinho dos Santos
  • Departamento de Botânica, Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Fisiologia Vegetal, Distrito de Rubião Jr., s/n°, CEP: 18618- 970, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brasil.
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Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima
  • Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima
  • Departamento de Botânica, Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Fisiologia Vegetal, Distrito de Rubião Jr., s/n°, CEP: 18618- 970, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brasil.
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Pamela Cristina Santos
  • Pamela Cristina Santos
  • Departamento de Ciências Biológicas - Laboratório de Fitoterápicos, Faculdade de Ciências e Letras de Assis, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Avenida Dom Antônio 2100, CEP: 19806-900, Assis, São Paulo, Brasil.
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Cosendey Toledo de Mello Peixoto
  • Cosendey Toledo de Mello Peixoto
  • Universidade Estadual do Norte do Paraná Rod. BR369 Km 54 ? Vila Maria, cep: 86360?000, Bandeirantes, Paraná ? Brazil.
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Luciana Pereira da Silva
  • Luciana Pereira da Silva
  • Fundação Educacional do Município de Assis (FEMA), Assis, São Paulo, Brazil.
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  •  Received: 14 August 2014
  •  Accepted: 11 March 2015
  •  Published: 19 March 2015

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the phytotoxicity of Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq. leaves ethanolic extract in seeds germination, development and fixation of Lactuca sativa seedlings. The same study also aimed to assess the mitotic index of lettuce roots meristematic cells, quantification of phenols and total flavonoids and triage by mean of phytochemical testing of the main secondary metabolites classes. Bioassays of germination, development of root and hypocotyl were carried out in Petri dishes using achenes of Lactuca sativa L. cv. 'Grand Rapids' (lettuce). Concomitantly, were evaluated the physico-chemical characteristics (pH, osmotic potential and electrical conductivity), mitotic index, quantification of total phenols and flavonoids and determination of phytochemical profile of the treatments extract. The results obtained in the bioassays demonstrate that the ethanol extract of S. aculeatissimuma presents phytotoxic potential in the development of lettuce seedlings, given that the concentration of 20 mg/ml showed greater inhibition (41% of germination). The extract contains significant amounts of antioxidants, total flavonoid and phenols, where the concentration 1000µg/mL showed higher values (86.50%). Furthermore, it was possible to observe the presence of compounds with allelopathic activity in the phytochemical screening test as coumarins, tannins, terpenes, flavonoids and alkaloids. Given the above it is clear that the ethanolic extract of S. aculeatissimum presents allelopathic substances with phytotoxic activity that can affect the germination and development of other plant species in their natural environment.

 

Key words: Allelopathy, antioxidants, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test, Lactuca sativa.