Journal of
Mechanical Engineering Research

  • Abbreviation: J. Mech. Eng. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2383
  • DOI: 10.5897/JMER
  • Start Year: 2009

JMER Articles

April 2018

Relevance of modeling and simulation in the management of engineering projects

Project management is one of the most important and poorly understood areas of management. Delays and cost overruns are common in projects such as construction, power generation, defense, software, product development, etc. Project management is affected by problems relating to costing and scheduling. Changes in the design of customer creates costly ripple effects which in turn lead to delay and disruption throughout an...

Author(s): Rowland Jerry Ekeocha and Stephen Kalu Ogbonnaya

March 2018

Research on heat transfer enhancement of variable cross sectional conformal cooling of injection mold based on fluent

The purpose of this paper is to present a technique of variable cross section conformal cooling channels (VCCC) to compare the cooling effect of moulds with equal section channel experimentally. The influence of the size structure parameters of the variable cross section conformal cooling channel on heat transfer is studied. It is found that the ratio of D/d=1.4 has the best effect of enhanced heat transfer. To...

Author(s): YAN Zhihong, QIAN Yingping, HUANG Wei, ZHOU Xizhi and GONG Xuedan

January 2018

Vibration in systems

The unhealthy and destructive motion exhibited in moving, operating or rotating machinery is called vibration. It is also observed as any oscillatory motion of a mechanical system about its equilibrium point. Clearly, vibration can thus be unhealthy and destructive which is the reason for its undesirability. However, it can also be good and useful as observed in some mechanical and construction equipment. Vibration can...

Author(s): R. J. O. Ekeocha

September 2017

Frictional effect on stress and displacement fields in contact region

In this study, by applying Giannakopoulos and Pallot’s stress and displacement equations, and using the Goryacheva’s friction model, the stress and displacement equations are obtained. Finally, by applying analytical method, these equations are solved. By assuming that the roller is rigid and the substrate is almost homogeneous with constant Poisson ratio and constant elastic modulus, the results of...

Author(s): Saeed Adibnazari and Ali Anvari

July 2017

Synthesis of hyperboloid gear drives: Controlling of the singularity on the active tooth surfaces

The study illustrates the mathematical model, applied to the synthesis of hyperboloid gear drives with taking into account the singularity appearance on the contacting active tooth surfaces. A kinematic approach for registration of the singularity on the tooth surfaces of the synthesized spatial transmissions is shown. The analytical dependencies applicable for defining and controlling of the singularities on the...

Author(s): Emilia Abadjieva, and Valentin Abadjiev

June 2017

Optimization of R134a cross vane expander compressor refrigeration system oriented to COP

Cross vane expander compressor (CVEC) is a newly invented expander-compressor combined unit, where it is introduced to replace the compressor and the expansion valve in traditional refrigeration system. The mathematical model of CVEC has been developed to examine its performance and it was found that the energy consumption of a conventional refrigeration system was reduced by as much as 18%. It is believed that this...

Author(s): Y. D. Lim, K. S. Yap and K. T. Ooi

January 2017

Mathematical modeling, simulation and analysis of rice grain movement for design and fabrication of low-cost winnowing machine

Winnowing called “Dhan Battaune” in Nepali is the process of separation of unwanted matters from paddy after threshing. In the conventional method; it requires at least four person to produce strong wind by bamboo basket (“Nanglo” in Nepali) to blow away straw, leaves of grasses and other unwanted matters; process starting with one of them pouring the sun dried grains from certain height. To...

Author(s): Krishna Prasad Shrestha, Pradeep Parajuli, Bivek Baral and Bim Prasad Shrestha

April 2016

Application of augmented finite element and cohesive zone modelling to predict damage evolution in metal matrix composites and aircraft coatings

This paper reports on the application of a special purpose finite element analysis tool that combines augmented finite element methodologies (AFEM) and cohesive zone model (CZM) methods to simulate initiation and propagation of both cohesive and adhesive cracks. The constitutive behaviour of an aluminium/silicon carbide metal matrix composite was predicted and compared with experimental data as an example of a material...

Author(s): Bing Han, Martin Veidt, Johannes Reiner and Matthew Dargusch

August 2015

Investigation of compressive properties of 3D fiber reinforced polymeric (FRP) composites through combined end and shear loading

The failure mechanisms and failure stress states of 2D and 3D FRP composite is investigated through experimental work, SEM, finite element analysis and failure theories. In this research work, feasibility of ASTM standard D6641 is investigated for testing of 3D FRP composite. A 3D finite element model is developed in ABAQUS with homogeneous orthotropic laminate to investigate the failure stress state in the gage section...

Author(s): S. Z. H. Shah, R. S. Choudhry and L. A. Khan

July 2015

Heat transfer on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stagnation - point flow in nanofluid past a porous shrinking/stretching sheet with variable stream condition in the presence of blowing at the surface

This paper deals with the steady two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stagnation-point flow of nanofluid and heat transfer with thermal radiation past a stretching/shrinking sheet in the presence of injection are investigated numerically and simulated with Maple 18 software. Brownian motion and thermophoresis are included in employed model of nanofluid simultaneously. The system of nonlinear ordinary differential...

Author(s): Vibhu Vignesh Balachandar, Sulaiman Bin Hasan and R. Kandasamy

May 2015

Analysis of potential flow around two-dimensional body by finite element method

The paper presents a numerical method for analyzing the potential flow around two dimensional body such as single circular cylinder, NACA0012 hydrofoil and double circular cylinders by finite element method. The numerical technique is based upon a general formulation for the Laplace’s equation using Galerkin technique finite element approach. The solution of the systems of algebraic equations is approached by...

Author(s): Md. Shahjada Tarafder and Nabila Naz

March 2015

Dynamic analysis of the influence of fiber orientation in composite laminated plates

This paper evaluates numerically the dynamic behavior of structural composite laminate materials in relation to the angular change in fiber layers of the laminated composite. The behavior of the material is modeled through finite element method, where the First Order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT) is used which is implemented on a rectangular element serendipity containing eight nodes. The mathematical modeling has...

Author(s): Adriana Diacenco, Ariosto Britain Jorge and Patricia da Silva

October 2014

Effects of fuel injection discharge curve and injection pressure on upgrading power and combustion parameters in heavy-duty (HD) diesel engine with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation

In this study, the effects of fuel injection discharge curve and injection pressure onpower upgrade of heavy-duty diesel engine by simulation of combustion process in AVL-Fire software are discussed simultaneously. Hence, the fuel injection discharge curve is changed from semi-triangular to rectangular which is usual in common rail fuel injection system. Injection pressure with respect to amount of injected fuel and...

Author(s): Saeed Chamehsara, Seyed Mostafa Mirsalim and Mehdi Tajdari

September 2014

Establishment of an air quality monitoring model for dust-free rooms using neural network and control chart techniques

Recently, high-tech industries such as semiconductor, aerospace, optoelectronics, precision manufacturing precision required for its products increasingly stringent and dust-free rooms operating environment of various pollutants control requirements are also increasing. Accuracy ventilation in dust-free room is related to the experimental results, proper ventilation can help reduce levels...

Author(s): Yung-Hsiang Hung, Mei-Ling Huang, Chung-Pang Huang and Jia-Sian Wu

November 2013

Optimal maintenance scheduling of thermal power unıts in a restructured nigerian power system

The optimal preventive maintenance schedules of generating units for the purpose of maximizing economic benefits and improving reliable operation of 44 functional thermal generating units of Nigerian power system, subject to satisfying system load demand, allowable maintenance window and crew constraints over 52 weeks maintenance and operational period is presented. It uses HPSO algorithm to find the optimum schedule....

Author(s): Obodeh, O. and Ugwuoke, P. E.    

November 2013

Prediction and optimization of weld bead geometry in gas metal arc welding process using RSM and fmincon

  Cladding is a surface modification process in which a specially designed alloy is surface welded in order to enhance corrosion resistant properties. Common cladding techniques include Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW), submerged arc welding (SAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW). Because of high reliability, easiness in operation, high penetration good surface finish and high productivity gas metal arc welding...

Author(s): P. Sreeraj, T. Kannan and Subhasis Maji

November 2013

Set up Reduction – A perfect way for productivity improvement of computer numerical control (CNC) set up in manufacturing company

  Most manufacturing operations require periodic setups for product changes, process-control verifications or engineering evaluations. Setups performed in-line-on the tool in lieu of running product take away from production time and may be classified as waste. This paper focuses that, setup procedures should be analyzed to see if they can be done in parallel, off line, to allow production to continue....

Author(s): Patel Chintan Kumar

October 2013

Review on effect of flux composition on its behavior and bead geometry in submerged arc welding (SAW)

Performance of a welding flux is decided by the physical and chemical properties of its constituents. The flux selected should show a good welding behavior and the required weld bead geometry. The mechanical properties of a joint are not only decided by its composition but these also depends on bead geometry, dimensions and physico-chemical properties of fluxes. These properties include surface tension, viscosity, heat...

Author(s): Brijpal Singh, Zahid Akthar Khan and Arshad Noor Siddiquee      

October 2013

Study of effects of burner configuration and jet dynamics on characteristics of inversed diffusion flames

The effect of the geometric parameters and jet dynamics of the port array inverse diffusion flame (IDF) burner on the flame characteristics were investigated experimentally usingliquefied petroleum gas (LPG) fuel. The geometric parameters are the central air flow area, the fuel jets flow area, the number of the fuel jets and the radius of the pitch circle around which the fuel ports are arranged. The jet dynamics...

Author(s): Hussien Zaky Barakat, Mohamed Refaat Salem, Abdelaziz Morgan and Hany Elsayed Saad          

September 2013

Experimental investigation of NOx emission on croton oil – 1-butanol – diesel in compression ignition (CI) engine

Vegetable oils as fuel have received attention in recent years due to their advantages including renewable nature and domestically produced energy resources. Achieving reduced emission is important subject, as it enhances sustainability of biofuels. General factorial experimental design and analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to analyze how NOx emission is influenced by alcohol content in vegetable oil-diesel fuel...

Author(s): Frank Lujaji, Sameer Hameer, Geoffrey John, Akos Bereczky and Makame Mbarawa      

September 2013

An efficient hybrid approach based on multi agent system and emergence method for the integration of systematic preventive maintenance policies in hybrid flow-shop scheduling to minimize makespan

This paper proposes a novel hybrid algorithm for the integration of systematic preventive maintenance policies in hybrid flow shop scheduling to minimize makespan. We have implemented a problem-solving approach for optimizing the processing time and methods based on metaheuristics. The proposed approach is inspired by the behavior of the human body. This hybridization is between a multi agent system and...

Author(s): Adel Abdelhadi and L. Hayet Mouss      

June 2013

Finite element analysis of optimized compound cylinder

  The cylindrical vessels are used for storing fluids at high pressure. If the magnitude of the internal/external pressure is closer to the yield strength of the material used, then no thickness of the material will prevent the failure of the vessel. Hence shrink-fitted compound cylinders are used, which can store the fluids at higher pressure closer to the yield stress of the material. Optimally designed...

Author(s):   Sunil A. Patil      

June 2013

Problems in the robot path control caused by AL-7075 chassis distortion and methods of improvement through non-conventional machining process

  In the field of research and manufacturing of control surfaces in robot components using 7075-T6 aluminum alloy, distortion during/after machining occurs because of the material removal forces and residual stresses and it affects robot path control. After the exact inspections, the main factors were found to be the machining strategy parameters in milling operation. This paper first presents flatness...

Author(s):   Ehsan Amouzegar, Ali Doniavi and Samerand Rash Ahmadi    

April 2013

Effect of nozzle type, angle and pressure on spray volumetric distribution of broadcasting and banding application

  The ultimate goal of agricultural spraying application system is to put the correct amount of pesticides, in the correct place, at the correct time to reduce the pest to a level below the economic threshold in order to improve agricultural production. A spray patternator was fabricated for the selection of a suitable nozzle to have uniform distribution of the spray liquid. Experiments were conducted on a...

Author(s):   Nasir .S. Hassen, Nor Azwadi .C. Sidik and Jamaludin .M. Sheriff       

April 2013

Investigation into radiation of a plate-fin heat exchanger with strip fins

  The objective of this study is to analyze the heat transfer by radiation in a plate-fin heat exchanger. Strip fins are employed to enhance heat transfer. Compact heat exchanger has been in use for many applications, including automobile, radiators, air-conditioning systems and electronic cooling devices. However, one of the important application of them is in microturbine cycle, where hot stream enter the...

Author(s):   Masoud Asadi and Ramin Haghighi Khoshkhoo        

March 2013

Optimization of a passive vehicle suspension system for ride comfort enhancement with different speeds based on design of experiment method (DOE) method

  This paper reported on an investigation to determine the spring and damper settings that ensured optimal ride comfort of vehicle in different speeds using design of experiment method (DOE). The extent to which the ride comfort optimal suspension settings vary for roads of different roughness and varying speeds and the levels of ride comfort that can be achieved, were addressed. Optimization was performed with...

Author(s):   Javad Marzbanrad, Masoud Mohammadi and Saeed Mostaani      

March 2013

Mathematical formalism of an internal air flow through a vortex tube machine of Hilsch-Ranque type: An analytical representation for velocity field

  In this paper, we will attempt to derive an analytical representation of velocity field for the concept of an internal air flow inside a vortex tube machine of Hilsch-Ranque type. The basic assumption here is that the flux field is assumed to be steady and incompressible.Τhe vector which denotes instantaneous velocity, for the description of the flux field...

Author(s):   J. Venetis and E. Sideridis,    

March 2013

Towards sustainable energy utilisation: An analysis of various cooking fuel options in Malawi

  In Malawi, nearly all (95% rural and 55% urban) households depend on firewood and charcoal for cooking. Consequently, domestic cooking is contributing to unsustainable exploitation of forests which result into various adverse socioeconomic and environmental effects. On the other hand, recent scholarship has shown that cooking using other energy sources such as electricity, biogas, ethanol/gelfuel, liquefied...

Author(s):   Nkhonjera L. K, Hameer S. and Kosamu I. B. M.      

February 2013

Review of internal cooling augmentation using baffles

  Heat transfer augmentation techniques refer to different methods used to increase rate of heat transfer without affecting much overall performance of the system. These techniques are used in heat exchangers. Like ribs, jet impingement and other passive heat transfer enhancement methods, insertion of baffle in a cooling system has been used for various types of industrial applications such as internal cooling...

Author(s):   R. M. Majumdar and V. M. Kriplani        

February 2013

Static analysis of mono leaf spring with different composite materials

  In the present scenario, composites are widely used in most of the industries in place of steel, due to low weight to strength ratio. In automobile industry, one can think of replacing parts with composites. The aim of this paper is to suggest the best composite material for design and fabrication of complete mono composite leaf spring. A single leaf with variable thickness and variable width for constant...

Author(s):   B. Raghu Kumar, R. Vijaya Prakash and N. Ramesh      

January 2013

Effect of cow dung variety on biogas production

  Biogas is a renewable, alternative and sustainable form of energy from the action of bacteria when waste vegetable matter, organic waste and some industrial waste are fermented in the absence of oxygen. This study was conducted to find the effect of cow dung variety on biogas generation. Some samples of fresh cow dung (2 Kg for each breed of cow) of cows which were not exposed to treatment with anti-biotics...

Author(s):   N. Y. Godi, L. B. Zhengwuvi, Salihu Adulkadir and P. Kamtu    

January 2013

Influence of injection timings on performance and emissions of a biodiesel engine operated on blends of Honge methyl ester and prediction using artificial neural network

  In the present work, biodiesel prepared from Honge oil (Pongamia) was used as a fuel in C. I engine. Performance studies were conducted on a single cylinder four-stroke water-cooled compression ignition engine connected to an eddy current dynamometer. Experiments were conducted for different percentage of blends of Honge methyl ester with diesel at various compression ratios and at different injection...

Author(s):   Shiva Kumar, Srinivas Pai P. and Shrinivasa Rao B. R.      

January 2013

Experimental investigation on roll forming of aluminum alloy AA6101 tubes

  Aluminum alloys are widely used in engineering structures and components, where light-weight and corrosion resistance are required. The roll forming process is successfully used for materials that are difficult to form by other conventional methods because of spring back, as this process achieves plastic deformation without spring back. In addition, the roll forming improves the mechanical properties...

Author(s):   S. Rajiv and K. Shanmuga Sundaram        

December 2012

Finite element modeling and analysis of zigzag and armchair type single wall carbon nanotube

  A carbon nanotube (CNT) possesses superior mechanical, electrical and optical properties. The stiffness and flexibility is much higher than those of conventional fibers. Various investigators have carried out various experiments as well as theoretical analysis which show that the carbon nanotubes possess superior mechanical properties. The model development in this work is based on the assumption that carbon...

Author(s):   S. Prabhu, Shubrajit Bhaumik and B. K. Vinayagam    

November 2012

Aeration of volatile organic compounds using gas dispersion impellers

  A number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are found in the wastewater and some of these VOCs are very harmful to human health as well as environment. Although there are several methods which are being used for the removal of VOCs, air stripping process is the low energy usage, low preventive and maintenance cost and high efficiency process which can stripe VOCs from wastewater. The...

Author(s):   M. K. Verma and R. K. Tyagi        

November 2012

Development of active suspension system for a quarter car model using optical incremental encoder and ultrasonic sensors

  Nowadays in the industrial world, quality factors are the reasons of growth and survival of an automotive unit. Suspension system as an effective part of vehicle can achieve two factors, "safety" and "convenience". It plays an important role in the quality of the car. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out an analysis and evaluation of how the suspension system responds in different...

Author(s):   A. Rezanoori, M. K. A. Ariffin, Tang Sai Hong and M. YousefiAzar Khanian          

November 2012

Variational iteration algorithm-II for solving the system of third order non-linear integro-differential equations

  Variational iteration method is widely used for solving nonlinear, integro-differential equations. Through careful investigation of the iteration formulas of the earlier variational iteration algorithm (VIM), we find unnecessary repeated calculations in each iteration. To overcome this shortcoming, the variational iteration algorithm-II (He et al., 2010) will be used in this paper to solve the system of non...

Author(s):   Yasir Khan, Yasir Nawaz and Naeem Faraz    

October 2012

Experimental studies on the characteristics of AA6082 flow formed tubes

  Flow-forming is an innovative, chip less metal forming process used to manufacture thin walled seamless tubes and other axi-symmetric components. Experiments were conducted to form annealed AA6082 alloy tubular pre-forms into thin walled seamless tubes on CNC flow forming machine with a single roller. The process parameters selected for the present investigation are roller radius, mandrel speed, roller feed,...

Author(s): M. Srinivasulu, M. Komaraiah and C. S. Krishna Prasada Rao  

October 2012

Holistic design and software aided finite element analysis (FEA) of an All-Terrain Vehicle

  We have tried to design an All-Terrain Vehicle that meets international standards and is also cost effective at the same time. We have focused on every single system to improve the performance of each component. Our vehicle can navigate through almost all terrain, which ultimately is the objective behind the making of any All-Terrain Vehicle. We began the task of designing by conducting extensive research of...

Author(s):   Amrit Om Nayak, G. Ramkumar, T. Manoj, M. A. Kannan, D. Manikandan and Sibi Chakravarthy      

May 2012

Mixed convection flow of second grade fluid with variable heat flux past a vertically stretching flat surface

  In the present investigation, a numerical study of the flow and heat transfer analysis of viscoelastic second grade fluid due to heated, continuous stretching of a vertical sheet has been carried out. The stretching velocity is assumed to vary linearly with the distance measured from the leading edge. The surface heat flux is assumed to be varied in power of distance measured from the leading edge. The...

Author(s):   Mushtaq M., Muhammad A, Asghar S., Hossain M. A      

May 2012

Combined effects of Hall currents and slip condition on steady flow of a viscous fluid due to non-coaxial rotation of a porous disk and a fluid at infinity

  Hall effects on the steady hydromagnetic flow due to non-coaxial rotations of a porous disk and a fluid at infinity with slip condition at the boundary has been studied. An exact solution of the governing equations has been obtained. The combined effects of Hall current, slip condition and suction or blowing are examined. It is found that both the primary velocity and the secondary velocity decrease with...

Author(s):   S. Das, S. L. Maji, N. Ghara and R. N. Jana      

May 2012

Analysis study on surface and sub surface imperfections through magnetic particle crack detection for nonlinear dynamic model of some mining components

  This paper reviews magnetic particle crack detection (MPCD) in terms of principle, advantages, disadvantages and limitations. Different mine gear components are evaluated through MPCD technique and results are analyzed in terms of their suitability by applying acceptance/rejection norms followed by the mining industry in India. MPCD is now a widely acceptable technique in the world and has...

Author(s):   Umesh Singh, Mohan Singh and M. K. Singh        

April 2012

An upper-bound solution for forging load of an elliptical disc

  The present work critically emphasis on the deformation limit of an elliptical disc. The upper- bound theorem has been used to determine the forging load. A suitable kinematically admissible velocity fields for three dimensional deformations have been chosen for analyzing deformation limit as well as the bulging of disc. During the analysis satisfactory friction factor, yield strength and other process...

Author(s):   K. S. Phogat, A. K. Shrama, R. K. Ranjan and V. K. Bajpai        

April 2012

Design analysis of solar bi-focal collectors

  This study carried out the design analysis of solar bi-focal collectors with the basic units comprising the paraboloid concentrators, receivers and support/connectors. The design of the receivers is such that it works on thermo-siphon principle while the heat energy requirement for each receiver is 650 kJ. Solar energy required to provide the needed power input in the collector’s receiver is amounted to...

Author(s):   Abdulrahim A. T., Diso I. S. and Abdulraheem A. S.          

April 2012

Experimental determination of the adsorption capacity of synthetic Zeolite A/water pair for solar cooling applications

  This study carried out the design analysis of solar bi-focal collectors with the basic units comprising the paraboloid concentrators, receivers and support/connectors. The design of the receivers is such that it works on thermo-siphon principle while the heat energy requirement for each receiver is 650 kJ. Solar energy required to provide the needed power input in the collector’s receiver is amounted to...

Author(s):   Ityona Amber, Randolph Osivue Odekhe and Yinka Sofihullahi Sanusi        

April 2012

Static analysis of an isotropic rectangular plate using finite element analysis (FEA)

  This research work aims to analyze the static analysis of an isotropic rectangular plate with various boundary conditions and various types of load applications. In this paper, finite element analysis has been carried out for an isotropic rectangular plate by considering the master element as a four noded quadrilateral element. Numerical analysis (finite element analysis, FEA) has been carried out by...

Author(s):   Vanam B. C. L., Rajyalakshmi M. and Inala R.      

March 2012

Design considerations of Gudgeon pin in reciprocating air compressors by semi analytic approach

  The deformation and stress experienced by the Gudgeon pin of a reciprocating compressor used in air brake system is scientifically predicted when the pin is fully floating with lubricating oil surrounding it and when starved of oil. Both semi analytical approach in finite element method and simple bending theory of beams are used. Inadequacy of the beam approach is highlighted. The results obtained by both...

Author(s):   V. Ramamurti, S. Sridhar, S. Mithun, B. Kumaravel and S. Lavanya        

March 2012

Robust least square estimation of the CRS A465 robot arm’s dynamic model parameters

  This paper presents the experimental estimation of the barycentric parameters of the CRS A465 robot arm. Three methods are used to estimate the barycentric parameters of the arm; ordinary least square method, weighted least squares method and iteratively reweighed least squares method. The estimation is carried out on the complete robot model and the simplified model where the effect of the product of inertia...

Author(s):   Azeddien Kinsheel, Zahari Taha, Abdelhakim Deboucha and Tuan Mohd Yusoff Shah Tuan Ya        

March 2012

Evaluation of the turbulence models for the simulation of the flow over a National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 0012 airfoil

  The analysis of the two dimensional subsonic flow over a National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 0012 airfoil at various angles of attack and operating at a Reynolds number of 3×106 is presented. The flow was obtained by solving the steady-state governing equations of continuity and momentum conservation combined with one of three turbulence models [Spalart-Allmaras,...

Author(s):   Douvi C. Eleni, Tsavalos I. Athanasios and Margaris P. Dionissios        

March 2012

Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based surface roughness prediction model for ball end milling operation

  Surface roughness is an index which determines the quality of machined products and is influenced by the cutting parameters. In this study, the average surface roughness Ra(value) for aluminum after ball end milling operation has been measured. 84 experiments have been conducted using varying cutter axis inclination angle (φ degree), spindle speed (S rpm), feed rate (fy mm/min), feed...

Author(s):   Shahriar Jahan Hossain and Nafis Ahmad        

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