International Journal of
Water Resources and Environmental Engineering

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Water Res. Environ. Eng.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6613
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJWREE
  • Start Year: 2009

IJWREE Articles

April 2018

Quantification of water balance using a lysimeter in Mexico

Under conditions of high pressure on water resources, it is essential to quantify the water balance. There are tools to perform the water balance, but unfortunately, they are expensive and  hardly accessible in developing countries. The objective of this study was to quantify the water balance using a low-cost lysimeter (LCL). Rainfall was measured using rain gauge. Soil water content (SWC) and infiltration were...

Author(s): Hipólito Muñoz-Nava, José Adrián René Grada-Yautentzi, Jorge Batlle-Sales, Elizabeth García-Gallegos and Rafael Valencia-Quintana.  

February 2018

Quality of groundwater in Valikamam area, Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka

The Jaffna Peninsula depends largely on groundwater resources for domestic as well as agricultural purposes. On several instances, it was pointed out that the groundwater is deteriorating due to overuse and is polluted by excessive usage of agrochemical, fertilizers, waste oil and improper sewage disposal. Hence, an experimental study was undertaken to assess the analysis of groundwater quality. To achieve this, water...

Author(s): V. Jeevaratnam, S. Balakumar, T. Mikunthan and M. Prabaharan  

February 2018

Evaluation of bacteriological and physicochemical quality of water supply systems in Welkite Town, Southwest-Ethiopia

Water supply systems provide consumers with drinking water that is adequately free of microbial pathogens to prevent waterborne diseases. The key to produce water of such desired quality is to implement multiple barriers, which control microbiological pathogens and chemical contaminants that may enter the water supply system. The objective of this study was to evaluate bacteriological and physicochemical quality of...

Author(s): Dessalew Berihun and Yonas Solomon  

January 2018

Evaluating the use of hot spring for agricultural process in Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines

This is an exploratory research aimed at examining the use of hot spring as a renewable energy source to replace conventional electrical energy for suitable agricultural process in the Los Baňos area, Laguna, Philippines. Here, a potential site was selected by analyzing data of the temperature, relative humidity and hot spring temperature. Preliminary results revealed that average air temperature, relative humidity and...

Author(s): Anthony J. Taplah Jr, Jose Mari C. Cabahug, Luther John R. Manuel, Erwin P. Quilloy and Pepito M. Bato

December 2017

Assessment of irrigation water quality of lowlands in the Bale Zone, South Eastern Oromia, Ethiopia

Water quality concerns have been very crucial because good quality water supplies in abundance and readily available for production and productivity is of great importance. Therefore, the study was conducted to assess irrigation water quality of the lowlands of Delo Menna and Berbere districts. The samples were collected from the upstream and downstream of the canals along the farms of the districts during the medium...

Author(s): Abdurahman Husien, Shure Seboka and Wakshum Shifarra

December 2017

Water supply and demand scenario of Dilla Town, Southern Ethiopia

Access to and use of safe drinking water can contribute enormously to health, productivity and social development. This study was conducted to assess the existing water supply and demand scenario of Dilla Town, Southern Ethiopia. To achieve the objective of the study, a total of 187 households were randomly selected and interviewed by using semi structured questionnaire. To collect the required data, interview schedule,...

Author(s): Mandefro Chala Debela and Habtamu Kassa Muhye

November 2017

Application of density-dependant finite element model for studying seawater intrusion in coastal aquifer of Ras El-Hekma, Northwestern Coast, Egypt

A numerical model of variable-density groundwater flow and miscible salt transport is applied to investigate the extent of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifer of Ras El-Hekma, northwestern coast, Egypt. The SEAWAT 2000 code is used to solve the density-dependent groundwater flow and solute transport governing equations. Seventeen groundwater samples were collected in 2015 for routine chemical analysis and water level...

Author(s): R. A. Hussien

November 2017

Evaluating water quality of Awash River using water quality index

Awash river has been impaired by various types of pollution owing to waste released from different socio-economic activities in its basin. This research was aimed at evaluating its quality status with respect to drinking and irrigation water uses. Based on accessibility and land use severity, 23 sample sites were chosen along the river and sampling was done twice in each of the dry and wet seasons. Thereafter, both...

Author(s): Amare Shiberu Keraga, Zebene Kiflie and Agizew Nigussie Engida

November 2017

Hydraulic performance assessment of Tahtay Tsalit small scale irrigation scheme, Tigray, Ethiopia

Assessment of irrigation performances is very essential while planning and chalking out management strategies for various irrigation. However, in Ethiopia, especially Tigray, performance evaluation of irrigation schemes is rarely conducted. The performance of Tahtay Tsalit irrigation scheme was not assessed yet and hence, this research was undertaken to assess the hydraulic performance of the irrigation scheme. The...

Author(s): Efriem Tariku Kassa and Mekonen Ayana

October 2017

Seasonal rainfall and crop productivity in South West Ethiopia: Preliminary analysis for recent climate

Rainfall is the most important element that limits the productivity of crops. Proper analysis of rainfall trend and understanding of its relationship with land productivity may help in planning purposes. Accordingly, a study was conducted to assess the statistical behavior of monthly, seasonal and annual rainfall in south west Ethiopia (Arba Minch). Furthermore, correlation statistics was employed to explain the...

Author(s): Molla Mekonnen Alemu and Fitsume Yemenu Desta

October 2017

Contribution to knowledge of the Lakes of Ounianga by bathymetry and physicochemistry

This work aimed to contribute to knowledge improvement of the great Lake ecosystems of Chad, precisely that of the Lakes of Ounianga using bathymetric statements on water levels and the in situ analysis of physicochemical parameters of the lake’s waters. Bathymetric surveys facilitated characterization of the morphology of the bottom of the lakes with depths that vary from 0 to -27 m and 0 to -5.7 m for Yoan and...

Author(s): Arrakhais Abakar Bourma, Abderamane Hamit, Moussa Abderamane, Beatrice Ketchemen-Tandia and Mahamat NourAbdalah

September 2017

Application of stochastic models in predicting Lake Malawi water levels

Stochastic models have proven to be practically fundamental in fields such as science, economics, and business, among others. In Malawi, stochastic models have been used in fisheries to forecast fish catches. Nevertheless, forecasting water levels in major lakes and rivers in Malawi has been given little attention despite the availability of ample historical data. Although previous multichannel seismic surveys revealed...

Author(s): Rodgers Makwinja, Titus Phiri, Ishmael B. M. Kosamu and Chikumbusko C. Kaonga

September 2017

Assessment of groundwater suitability for irrigation in three sub catchments in Upper Athi River Basin, Kenya

Over the years, erratic rainfall pattern coupled with increasing population has led to the reliance on groundwater as an alternative and sustainable source for crop irrigation to meet increasing food demand. Irrigation of crops though essential, if not done with care through good practices and use of quality water can lead to soil salinization and ecological unsustainability. This study was carried out to assess the...

Author(s): Philip Kwabla Attibu, Ebenezer Ashun and George Lartey Young

August 2017

Evaluation of empirical models for estimating reference-evapotranspiration (RET-ET) in humid semi-hot equatorial coastal climate

The performances of five empirical models, namely: Hargreaves-Samani, Makkink1 (1957), Makkink2 (1984), Priestley-Taylor and FAO 56-PM in estimating reference evapotranspiration (REF-ET) were separately compared with Epan data and FAO 56-PM, respectively. Based on statistical analysis, Hargreaves-Samani method compared best with daily and monthly Epan data, while Makkik2 (1984) ranked first with FAO 56-PM. In terms of...

Author(s): Itolima Ologhadien and Ify L. Nwaogazie

August 2017

Analysis of spatial and temporal drought variability in a tropical river basin using Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI)

Analysis of spatial and temporal drought variability in the upper Tana River basin using Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) was conducted. The drought is critical for formulation of mitigation measures in the river basin. A monthly temporal and 90-m spatial resolution was applied. This was achieved within ArcGIS environment. Climatic data for 1970 to 2010 was used for computation of the PDSI while the missing data...

Author(s): Raphael M. Wambua, Benedict M. Mutua and James M. Raude

July 2017

Hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater in Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti Southwestern Nigeria

Groundwater composition can be altered significantly due to geogenic and anthropogenic inputs from bedrocks and human activities respectively. Such impacted water may be injurious to health if consumed. Water quality depends on the physical, chemical and bacteriological composition of water. Hydrochemical assessment of groundwater within Afe Babalola University (ABUAD) and its adjoining environments was undertaken with...

Author(s): Afolabi O. O., Olatunji S. O. and Wategire E. D.

July 2017

Assessment of Assela Town municipality waste water discharge effect on the chemical and bacteriological water pollution load of Anko River

Assela, one of the developing towns in the south eastern central zone of Ethiopia, is located 175 km away from the Capital City of Addis Ababa. Anko River divides the town into two separate parts. In rural areas, water from Anko River is used for drinking and sanitation purposes. However, sewage from residential areas and Assela Hospital directly enters the river, affecting its quality. The objective was to determine...

Author(s): Amde Eshete Gebre

July 2017

Applications of soft tools to solve hydrological problems for an integrated Indian catchment

Emergence of a hydrological forecasting model based on past records is crucial in solution of problem. In water resource and hydrology, to build the estimation model based upon the hydrological records, generally requires traditional time series analysis and modelling. Estimation can be done either by using Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques, or by some traditional methods. The present work uses two data driven...

Author(s): Vidyanand Sayagavi and Shrikant Charhate

June 2017

Risk assessment of cyanobacteria-toxins for small drinking water treatment plants with lake water intakes

Recent increases in the frequency and severity of toxic algae blooms in freshwater lakes has been a major concern for small communities that rely on them for drinking water supply. A hazard quotient approach to risk characterization is employed to analyze the effectiveness of five conventional treatment methods for removal of cyanotoxins. The application of the method for risk assessment and mitigation is demonstrated...

Author(s): Uche A. Uduma, Edward A. McBean and Bahram Gharabaghi

June 2017

Irrigation water quality of River Kulfo and its implication in irrigated agriculture, South West Ethiopia

Irrigation is a common agricultural practice for farmers in the periphery of flowing rivers in Ethiopia. In the south west Ethiopia, fruits and vegetables are majorly produced under irrigation where the mode of irrigation is by pumping water from flowing rivers. Irrigated agriculture has only been linked to the availability of water in physical terms, while the quality of water is significantly important for sustainable...

Author(s): Molla Mekonnen Alemu and Fitsume Yemenu Desta

May 2017

Evaluation of water supply and demand: The case of Shambu town, Western Oromia, Ethiopia

Shambu town has faced a problem of potable water supply, still large number of people did not have access to adequate amount of potable water and frequent water interruption is a common problem.  The objective of this research was to evaluate the existing water pressure map and water demand. To achieve this goal, the following input data were collected, base population, growth rate, and pressure map of the area,...

Author(s): Mulatu Kassa

May 2017

Rainfall-runoff relation and runoff estimation for Holetta River, Awash subbasin, Ethiopia using SWAT model

The hydrology of Holetta River and its seasonal variability is not fully studied. In addition to this, due to scarcity of the available surface water and increase in water demand for irrigation, the major users of the river are facing a problem of allocating the available water. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate the water availability of Holetta River using Geographical Information Systems (GIS)...

Author(s): Mahtsente Tibebe, Assefa M. Melesse and Dereje Hailu

May 2017

Characterization of Beles River Basin of Blue Nile sub-Basin in North-Western Ethiopia using Arc-Hydro tools in Arc-GIS

Ethiopia is constantly affected by shortage of water for rain-fed agriculture, mainly because of lack of proper water resources utilization and management practices. For the efficient use of available surface water resources with balanced attention to maximize economic, social, and environmental benefits, it is necessary to have effective integrated water resources assessments and planning. Beles River Basin is one of...

Author(s): Ashebir Haile Tefera

April 2017

Geostatistical study of the spatial variability of groundwater parameters in Afikpo and Ohaozara, Southeastern Nigeria

Abortive boreholes and parched wells, ascribed to the difficulty in understanding the hydrogeology of the aquifer by water borehole drillers, pose great concern to the people of the region. Mapping the spatial variability of water table depth (WTD) (m) and aquifer thickness H (m) is a vital step in optimal utilization of groundwater resources. Thus, the aim of this paper is to investigate the spatial variability of the...

Author(s): Robert Egwu Otu Iduma, Tamunoene Kingdom Simeon Abam and Etim Daniel Uko

April 2017

Impact of climate change on Lake Chamo Water Balance, Ethiopia

One of the most significant potential concerns of climate change is to understand changes in hydrological components and subsequent change in lakes water balance. In view of this study, the water balance components such as surface water inflow from gauged and ungauged sub-watersheds, precipitation and evaporation pattern of the natural reservoir and their associated impacts vis-à-vis altering the water balance of...

Author(s): Elias Gebeyehu

March 2017

Review on participatory small-scale irrigation schemes and small-scale rainwater harvesting technology development and its contribution to household food security in Ethiopia

This review aims to compile the past, present and future trends of participatory small-scale irrigation schemes (PSSIS) and small-scale rainwater harvesting technology (SSRWHT) development to ensure household food security in Ethiopia. It discusses the Ethiopian PSSIS and SSRWHT development based on the historical backgrounds, current conditions of development and its contributions to the national economy, challenges...

Author(s): Tadesse Mosissa and Baihilu Bezabih

March 2017

Review on distribution, importance, threats and consequences of wetland degradation in Ethiopia

Wetlands are the ecosystems that are found on the interface between land and water. It is also areas of marsh, ponds and swamps, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water, that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salty, including areas of marine water, the depth of which at low tide, does not exceed six meters. Although, wetlands by nature are dynamic ecosystems, anthropogenic activities...

Author(s): Bahilu Bezabih and Tadesse Mosissa

February 2017

Assessing the groundwater vulnerability in the upper aquifers of Zarqa River Basin, Jordan using DRASTIC, SINTACS and GOD methods

Groundwater vulnerability is an overlay method that is used to determine the ability of pollutants to penetrate the aquifer and harming it. This method helps decision makers by highlighting expected areas to be polluted. In Jordan, groundwater is the main water resource the country uses to match its demand. The groundwater basins in Jordan are divided into 12 major basins; some are rechargeable and others are fossil....

Author(s): Alsharifa Hind Mohammad

February 2017

Status of wetlands valleyed in a hilly region of North East India - A review

A key to future sustenance of human societies lies in the sustainable management and wise use of Wetlands. Wetlands are frequently referred to as Kidneys of Landscape; are amongst the most productive ecosystems on the earth and any alterations might lead to changes in their bio-physical, socio-economic and climatic conditions. Due to various factors like rapid urbanization, industrialization and agricultural activities;...

Author(s): Thiyam Tamphasana Devi, Bakimchandra Oinam, Ngangbam Romeji Singh and Maisnam Bipinchandra Singh

January 2017

Comparative assessment of soil and nutrient losses from three land uses in the central highlands of Ethiopia

Land use/land cover change drive changes in several ecosystem processes over short and long terms. In Ethiopia, the main land use/land cover change involves conversion of natural ecosystem into cultivated land. However, a recent change also involves conversion of cultivated and grazing land into Eucalyptus woodlots. This study was conducted to analyse the effects of such land use/land cover change on soil and nutrient...

Author(s): Daniel Jaleta, Boniface P. Mbilinyi, Henry F. Mahoo and Mulugeta Lemenih

January 2017

Impact of climate change on hydrological responses of Gumara catchment, in the Lake Tana Basin - Upper Blue Nile Basin of Ethiopia

Predictions of the impacts of climate change on the intensity, amount, and spatial and temporal variability of rainfall and temperature are required. The aim of this study was to assess the status of climate change and hydrological response to climate change for Gumara River sub-basin. Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM 4.2) was used to downscale HadCM3A2a and HadCM3B2a predictors into finer scale resolution. To...

Author(s): Andargachew Melke and Fantahun Abegaz

January 2017

Evidence based review of Legionella elimination in building water systems

Legionnaires disease can be acquired through exposure to Legionella pneumophila, a gram-negative bacteria ubiquitous in both natural and engineered water systems. Over the years, a number of disinfection techniques notably, chlorination, ozonation, thermal, UV and copper-silver ionization have been employed across different kinds of engineered water systems with diverse measures of success. Available evidence portends,...

Author(s): M. D. Sedzro, R. A. Banu and M. O. Akrong

December 2016

Downscaling daily precipitation and temperatures over the Langat River Basin in Malaysia: A comparison of two statistical downscaling approaches

Increasing greenhouse gas concentrations can cause future changes in the climate system that have a major impact on the hydrologic cycle. To realize and predict future climate parameters, the Atmosphere-Ocean Global Climate Models (AOGCMs) are common employed tools to predict the future changes in climate parameters. The statistical downscaling methods have been applied as a practical tool to bridge the spatial...

Author(s): Mahdi Amirabadizadeh, Abdul Halim Ghazali, Yuk Feng Huang and Aimrun Wayayok

December 2016

Assessment of trace elements in selected bottled drinking water in Ghana: A case study of Accra metropolis

Public perception of bottled drinking water as the cleanest and safest source of drinking water in the world and particularly Ghana, has led to their increasing demand though being pricey. In this study, we present the results of the health-related trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in 10 selected popular bottled drinking water brands sourced from Accra metropolis, Ghana. These include BonAqua Premium drinking...

Author(s): Emmanuel Daanoba Sunkari and Iliya Bauchi Danladi

November 2016

Analysis of community led total sanitation and its impacts on groundwater and health hygiene

This study was carried out to determine the magnitude to which Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach leads to improved sanitation and its potential threats to groundwater quality and health of people. A comparative study was carried out between eight CLTS and non CLTS villages to measure the outcomes of CLTS approach. Water samples were collected to assess the level of contamination in groundwater sources near...

Author(s): Ihsan Ullah Khan, Shams Ali Baig, Bahadar Nawab, Tahir Mahmood and Ingrid Nyborg

September 2016

Treatment of a mahewu processing plant wastewater using coagulant Ferrifloc 1820

Wastewater from a mahewu processing plant was collected for characterisation and jar testing using Ferrifloc 1820 and a combination of Ferrifloc 1820 and the polyelectrolyte Magnafloc. Treatment showed that Ferrifloc 1820 caused a statistically significant decrease on both the chemical oxygen demand (COD)  and oil and grease content of the wastewater. The mean decrease for the COD using Ferrifloc 1820 was 65.24%...

Author(s): Wadzanai Fortune Mareesa and Sherpard Manhokwe

September 2016

Combined effects of municipal and industrial wastes on the quality of the new northern Calabar River, Nigeria

This study was conducted to investigate the combined effects of municipal and industrial waste discharges on the quality of the new northern Calabar River in the Niger Delta province (5.317°N, 6.467°E) of Nigeria. Water samples were collected in June 2015 from five regions along the stretch of the river. The five regions comprised three observed pollution sources (abattoir, open market, and noodle factory) and...

Author(s): Reuben N. Okparanma, Raphael B. Jumbo and Faith N. Chukwu

August 2016

Hydrological classification of the Besease inland valley bottom in Ghana for crop production using the water table fluctuation method

The shapes and forms of piezometric hydrographs arising from the recharging and discharging of unconfined aquifers offer a hydrological tool for the classifications of inland valley bottoms in Ghana for crop production. A two-year measured water table fluctuations at Besease wetlands were plotted on a reference scale of time in months on the x-axis and hydraulic head on the y-axis. The water table fluctuation method was...

Author(s): Atta-Darkwa T., Akolgo G. A., Kyei-Baffour N., Agyare W. A. and Abagale F. K.

August 2016

Wet and dry spell analysis for decision making in agricultural water management in the eastern part of Ethiopia, West Haraghe

The objective this study was to analyze the dry and wet spell of the main and small rainy season in the eastern part of Ethiopia, West Haraghe. Markov Chain model was employed to investigate the extent and characteristics of the dry and wet spell in the study sites. Accordingly, the results exhibited that the chance of having wet dekades is relatively higher (greater than 50% of probability of occurrences) during last...

Author(s): Konjit Sifer, Fitsume Yemenu, Asfaw Kebede and Shoeb Quarshi

July 2016

Analysis of water quality of Selameko man-made reservoir using physico-chemical parameters for fishery, Debre Tabor, South Gondar (Ethiopia)

Water quality is connected with physical, chemical and biological (including bacteriological) characteristics and these characteristics are determined the healthy status of any aquatic ecosystem. To determine whether the water quality of Selameko reservoir is good for fishing, physico-chemical parameters measurements were made. Water quality parameters, such as temperature, water transparency, water depth, dissolved...

Author(s): Tilahun Adugna and Ayale Wondie

June 2016

Status of Kigezi minor Lakes: A limnological survey in the Lakes of Kisoro, Kabale and Rukungiri Districts

A limnological survey was conducted in six Lakes: Mulehe, Mutanda, Kayumbu, Chahafi, Bunyonyi and Nakasanda, of South-Western Uganda (SWU) in September 2014. The baseline survey aimed at characterizing the high altitude water bodies for enhanced future fisheries productivity. The results indicated that Lake Nakasanda had the highest temperature (24°C). Although other physic-chemical conditions of the water bodies...

Author(s): Papius Dias M. Tibihika, William Okello, Alex Barekye, Dismas Mbabazi, Jimmy Omony and Vincent Kiggundu

May 2016

Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of pathogenic bacterial isolates of public health concern from Lake Hawassa water, Ethiopia

This study was aimed to identify and test the antibiotic sensitivity of bacterial isolates of public health concern from Lake Hawassa. Human and livestock activities in and around the lake adversely influence the quality of the lake water and pose a health risk for those people which are being exposed to the water. Therefore identifying pathogenic bacterial isolates and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern can be...

Author(s): Tolessa Muleta, Etana Debela and Ofgea Kenesa Chali

April 2016

Continuous and stochastic methods for modeling rain drop growth in clouds

Two models for raindrop growth in clouds are developed and compared with an interpretation to elucidate the rain drop relationship among both the models. A continuous accretion model is solved numerically for drop growth from 20 to 50 microns, using a polynomial approximation to the collection kernel, and is shown to underestimate growth rates. A Monte Carlo simulation for stochastic growth have also been implemented to...

Author(s): Rehan Siddiqui and Brendan M. Quine,

April 2016

Spatial and temporal variability of dry spell lengths and indication of climate change in rainfall extremes at Tekeze River Basin, Ethiopia

Understanding weather extremes and climate variability both in space and time based on historical surface observed climate data at watershed is very crucial as it is used as in put for applying the seasonal forecast given by National Hydrological and Meteorological Agencies, in decision making in agricultural activities, water resources projects, rainfall-runoff modeling, and for drought risk identification and...

Author(s): Michale Gebrekiros Gebreselassie and Semu Ayalew Moges

March 2016

Two offers to prevent excessive water consumption: A proposal for industrial design departments of universities

Water resources play an important role in the development of the socio-economic status of a country. The world’s population increased from one billion to six billions in less than 200 years. With the rapid increase in population and advancement in technology, demand for water increases steadily and the limited amount of available fresh water sources are subjected to severe environmental problems. Available fresh...

Author(s): Murat Sönmez

January 2016

Effect of blended irrigation water quality on soil physico-chemical properties and cotton yield in Middle Awash Basin Ethiopia

Awash River is the main irrigation water source for mechanized farms and small land farmers established in the Basin for the last few decades. Recently, with the rise of Beseka Lake, the amount of discharging rate into the Awash has been a serious concern to Agricultural Production in the Middle and Lower Awash Areas. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Beseka Lake on irrigation water quality, soil...

Author(s): Elias kebede Hailu, Brook Abate and Tilahun Hordofa

January 2016

Physical, chemical and bacterial analysis of drinking water: Kakua Chiefdom, BO district, Sierra Leone

Water makes the difference between living and non-living things, base on this there is a strong need to look at the chemistry, to make sure that it is free from contamination because of chemical reaction that take place in the living cell. In the case of this study, it is critical to determine the quality of the water supplied, because of the chemical reaction. This study analyzes 10 representative well water systems...

Author(s): Yahaya Kudush Kawa, John Paul Kaisam, J. P. Moiwo  and Victoria Kabia

December 2015

Modeling of contaminant transport in 10th of Ramadan City Area, East Delta, Egypt

The establishment of new communities and land reclamation projects in the Egyptian desert areas is one of the most important national targets. One of these areas is the 10th of Ramadan city. The main goal of the study is concerned with delineation of groundwater contaminants plume in the future. The results show that; the ions concentrations of most samples from the oxidation ponds resources contain concentrations of...

Author(s): S. Khalaf and Mohammed Ibrahim Gad

November 2015

Water planning and management in sustainable new town building, the case of Ramshar

The focus of this paper is on new town building in hydro drought regions. It looks at new town building from the sustainability perspective; especially it discusses the supply and distribution of water in the new towns. The aim of this paper is to resolve a dilemma in the arid regions. One side a much demand for new towns because of the population growth and other side the water anxiety is being a key reason hindering...

Author(s): Abdol Aziz Shahraki

November 2015

Classical and Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) modeling of extreme rainfall (1979-2014) in Makurdi, Nigeria

This study presents a probabilistic model for daily extreme rainfall. The Annual Maximum Series (AMS) data of daily rainfall in Makurdi was fitted to Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution using Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) and Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (Bayesian MCMC) simulations. MLE is a reliable principle to derive an efficient estimator for a model as sample size approaches infinity. Results in...

Author(s): Martins Okechukwu Isikwue, Sam Baba Onoja and David Samson Naakaa

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