Clinical Reviews and Opinions

  • Abbreviation: Clin. Rev. Opinions
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2553
  • DOI: 10.5897/CRO
  • Start Year: 2009

CRO Articles

July 2017

Platelet-mediated clumping adhesion phenotypes of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes: A review

Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. In general, malaria is easily treated but in a subset of cases it develops to severe disease. Severe malaria has a high rate of mortality even with the best available care. This creates the need for intensive research to fully characterise the pathogenesis of the disease in order to create future novel therapies. One of the hallmarks of malaria...

Author(s): Frank G Onyambu, Stephen B Tanui, Dominic S. O. Alwala, Kiptanui Chebii and Bethwel K. Kigen

March 2017

Methods for monitoring artemisinin-based combination therapies efficacy

Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin and its derivatives is spreading in South-East Asia, and there is growing concern that this may reach other endemic countries. Methods used to assess P.  falciparum resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are multiple and often divergent. This paper is a review of online accessible research publications from the past 20 years on ACTs, ranging from...

Author(s): Souleymane Dama, Abdoulaye A. Djimde and Ogobara K. Doumbo

July 2016

Breast cancer awareness, attitude and screening practices in Nigeria: A systematic review

Previous research on the breast cancer awareness, attitude and screening practices has produced divergent results. This systematic review aimed to summarise evidence and to compare all existing evidence on the awareness of breast cancer, attitude and screening practices among women in the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Overall, 40 articles were included in the final analysis. The search was limited to articles...

Author(s): Ojewusi Ayoola A., Obembe Taiwo, Arulogun Oyedunni S. and Olugbayela Tunde

January 2016

Impact of seasonal malaria chemoprevention of sulphadoxine–pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine on molecular markers resistance of Plasmodium falciparum malaria: A review in West Africa

The study discuss the potential impact of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) on the cases of malaria, anaemia and molecular markers resistance Plasmodium falciparum malaria; and also review the mechanism of action and the effect on immunity of SMC. SMC using an efficacious drug is likely to substantially reduce cases of clinical malaria in high transmission settings. However, an increase of molecular markers could...

Author(s): Hamma Maiga

May 2014

Factor VIII genetic mutations and protein alterations in hemophilia A: A review

Hemophilia A represents a severe most common inherited hemorrhagic disorder caused by heterogeneous mutations, which lead to dysfunctional factor VIII protein. Besides the inversion 22 and intron 1 inversion, the mutations may describe 627 missense and 142 nonsense unique mutations. Changes in the protein sequence induce structural or functional impairment. This study aimed to review mutation in different domains and...

Author(s): Nuzhat Jahan Faridi, Praveen Kumar, Nuzhat Husain and Mohammad Imran

May 2013

An ancient mystery ‘unearthed’!

A 29-year-old female had presented to surgical out patient’s department complaining of lump in the anterior abdominal wall. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a solid degenerated tumor in the anterior abdominal wall. It was surgically excised and histopathology confirmed it to be ‘ancient’ schwannoma. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of an abdominal wall ancient...

Author(s): Anuj Mishra, Mohamed Hamadto, Mohamed Azzabi and Ehtuish F. Ehtuish

May 2013

Desmoid tumours: The aggressive fibromatosis

Desmoid tumours are benign tumours that have a tendency to be locally invasive. We present a desmoid tumour of the lower abdominal wall in a 30 year old female patient, discussed the treatment options and reviewed literature of this uncommon lesion.   Key words: Desmoid, abdominal wall, benign tumour.

Author(s): Arcot Rekha

February 2013

Recent trends in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widely prevalent cyst forming apicomplexan parasite present worldwide. Felines serve as definitive hosts, while all non-feline vertebrates including humans, act as intermediate hosts of the parasite. There are several serological tests available for the detection of T. gondii antibodies such as the dye test (DT), indirect haemagglutination test (IHA), complement...

Author(s): Vikrant Sudan, Amit K. Jaiswal and Daya Shanker

February 2013

Measles complications in a Nigerian hospital setting

In spite of active measles vaccination efforts in 2005 in southern Nigeria, re-emergence continues to occur. This study was carried out to ascertain the incidence of measles, severity, mortality and its complications, in order to enhance treatment and reduce under-five child mortality. Secondary data from the records in the measles ward of Oni Memorial Children’s Hospital, Ibadan was used. The period under...

Author(s): Onoja, A. B., Adeniji, A. J. and Faneye, A.

January 2013

The surgical and adjuvant therapy options for thyroid malignancies infiltrating great vessels of the neck: A review of the literature

Appropriate surgical and adjuvant therapies for involvement of great vessels in thyroid malignancies have rarely been reported in literature. In this study, we aim to present our experience and provide a review literature of these devastating tumors that requires multidisciplinary intervention during the whole process of management. Among the 118 patients with thyroid malignancies that were presented to us, there were...

Author(s): Norman Oneil Machado

January 2013

Pattern of trauma related to walnut harvesting and suggested preventive measures

Falls from trees and other tree related injuries are one of the most common causes of trauma in parts of rural Kashmir, particularly, during the harvest season. A one year review of all admissions for trauma, due to falling from trees, to the Accident and Emergency Department of Government Medical College Srinagar was carried out. The study revealed that walnut trees are the most commonly involved trees in such cases....

Author(s): Mudassir M. Wani, Rajandeep Bali, Iqbal Saleem Mir, Nisar Hamadani and Mubashir Wani

November 2012

A case of surgically treated hemorrhagic herpes encephalitis complicated by a sigmoid sinus vein thrombosis

A temporal massive hemorrhagic necrosis is an uncommon but known complication of herpes encephalitis. Cerebral vein or sinus thrombosis is a very rare complication of herpes encephalitis.  Due to its rarity, this complication can go under-diagnosed, resulting at times in grave neurological deficits for the patient. The concurrent existence of both complications is even less common and difficult to diagnose. This...

Author(s): Or Cohen-Inbar and Menashe Zaaroor

November 2012

Can mechanical thrombectomy replace angioplasty for the treatment of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)? Report of a case

We are reporting the case of a 64-year-old woman with acute inferior ST elevation myocardial infarction with right ventricular infarction. She underwent primary angiography which revealed total occlusion of distal right coronary artery (RCA) by thrombus. Three runs of aspiration were performed and the thrombus was aspirated from RCA without additional ballooning or stenting. Postaspiration angiography revealed normal...

Author(s): Mehmet Cansel, Julide Yağmur, Ferhat Eyyupkoca, Hakan Tasolar, Nusret Acıkgoz and Necip Ermis

November 2011

Potential clinical applications of dental stem cells

Complex human tissues harbor stem cells and/or precursor cells, which are responsible for tissue development or regeneration. Recently, dental tissues such as periodontal ligament (PDL), dental papilla or dental follicle have been identified as easily accessible sources of undifferentiated cells. Dental precursor cells are attractive for usage in regenerative dentistry, like for example regeneration of the dental pulp...

Author(s): Veleska-Stevkovska Daniela, Peeva-Petreska Marija, Evrosimovska Biljana, Apostolova Gordana and Veleski Dragoljub

  • Article Number: 7D5D2254536

November 2011

Flotrac/VigileoTM validation trials: Are there reliable conclusions?

We reviewed the comparative trials of the Flotrac/VigileoTM versus the thermodilution method, published in the last decade. The results about the agreement between the two methods measuring cardiac output are contrasting. We also noticed that almost the whole pertinent literature include studies conducted without a correct statistical design, particularly about the sample size. For this reason, we consider that...

Author(s): Enrico Giustiniano, Emanuela Morenghi, Nadia Ruggieri, Francesco Pellegrino,Jana Balazova, Cristina Dominoni and Gian Luca Marinelli

  • Article Number: 1A8172D4546

September 2011

A case report on scabies in a goat

In Texas, sarcoptes scabies is a reportable disease especially in Angora goats and in sheep in the USA. The prevalence of mange mite infestation in some African countries has also been recorded including in Nigeria which was estimated at 11 to 33%. The meat of West African dwarf goat (WADG) is a special delicacy in Nigeria especially in the eastern part and scabies is one of the major damaging skin diseases...

Author(s): Nwoha R. I. O.

  • Article Number: 05A39F14506

September 2011

Genital tuberculosis with predominant involvement of cervix: A case report

Tuberculosis of the cervix is a rare form of genital tuberculosis. The symptmatology does not have any particular specific features; but the macroscopic appearance may be of cancer at first impression. A biopsy followed by histology differentiates between the two. A 19 year old married female being investigated for primary amenorrhea with history of contact bleeding had an exophytic growth on cervix, which turned out to...

Author(s): Savita Rani Singhal, Pooja Chaudhry and Smiti Nanda

  • Article Number: BA53ADB4516

June 2011

In vitro- and in vivo- experimental models for balanced activity of oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes in normal and malignant cells

Gene transfer in laboratory-cultivated mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) was made by appropriate recombinant DNA-constructs. Electrophorhetic profiles of genetic material from wild type (WT) on oncogene Dcn1 and “knock-down” (KD) on it inbred lines of experimental mice differed not only on it, but also on the tumor-suppressor gene HACE1 between both categories of laboratory...

Author(s): Iskra Ventseslavova Sainova, Ilina Vavrek, Velichka Pavlova, Ivan Iliev, Lilija Yossifova, Elena Gardeva, Elena Nikolova, Teodora Daneva, Roberto Nitsch and Anna Nitsch

  • Article Number: D88734A4466

June 2011

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) associated with Helicobacter pylori infection

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is defined as a clonal proliferation of Langerhans phenotypic-like cells. Letterer-Siwe disease is the most common and serious of these entities, affecting mainly infants up to two years of age. We report an interesting, previously misdiagnosed and relapsing case of adult skin limited to LCH in a 25 years old female patient presented with well defined erythematous, dry scaly plaques...

Author(s): Bashir A. H. H, Lamyaa A. M and Al Hassan A. M

  • Article Number: 6963A174491

April 2011

Procalcitonin (PCT), C reactive protein (CRP) and its correlation with severity in early sepsis

Sepsis is a common cause of death, and represents a potentially life threatening disorder. Biochemical markers useful to initiate early antimicrobial treatment are being studied. Procalcitonin (PCT) and C reactive protein (CRP) have been proposed as markers for this purpose. To establish the level of PCT and CRP in early sepsis and its correlation with the APACHE II scale, levels of PCT and CRP were taken from 39...

Author(s): Fernando Rogelio Espinosa López, Abraham Emilio Reyes Jiménez, Germán Carrasco Tobon, Jesús Duarte Mote, and Octavio Novoa Farías

  • Article Number: BF0E5C74447

April 2011

The study of association between bacterial vaginosis and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at Xiangya Hospital (Changsha-Hunan, China)

This study was to explore the relationship between bacterial vaginosis and cervical dysplasia. Vaginal discharge gram stain, liquid-based thinlayer cystoFast test (TCT), human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16, 18 test, colposcopy and directed biopsy were performed among 46 patients with cervical dysplasia served as investigate group and 100 patients with cervicitis served as control group. There was statistically...

Author(s): Mamoudou Camara Yuhong Hang and Yao Ruojin

  • Article Number: EF3F1D84455

February 2011

Clinicoepidemiological study in Sudanese patients: Prevalence and effect of eradicative triple therapy on extra digestive Helicobacter pylori skin manifestations, EdHpSm

Helicobacter pylori are gram-negative; microaerophilic spiral rod-shaped bacteria and they lead to gastritis, duodenal or gastric ulcer and even in rare cases to gastric carcinoma or Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Based on a number of reports, a possible relationship of H. pylori infection to a variety of different dermatosis has been suggested, including urticaria, rosacea,...

Author(s): Bashir A. H. H., Yousif S. M. and Mahmoud M. O. A.

  • Article Number: 016DC474413

February 2011

Comparison of split renal function measured by 99mTc-DTPA, 99mTc-MAG3 and 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphies in paediatric age groups

Currently, in calculation of total and split renal functions (SRF), radionuclide methods are routinely used. We aimed to investigate whether any difference exists betweenSRF values obtained by 99mTc-MAG3, 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphies. Retrospectively, 38 patients were included in this study. In Group 1, both 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphies were performed. In...

Author(s): Zeki Dostbil, Necmettin Pembegül, Mehmet Küçüköner, Yaşar Bozkurt, Ahmet Ali Sancaktutar, Ismail Yildiz and Güven Tekbaş

  • Article Number: 317CBBE4428

January 2011

Multiple soft tissue recurrences in a case of central giant cell granuloma - true ‘tumor’ behaviour?

Giant cell granulomas (GCGs) of the jaws are lesions that arise either peripherally in periodontal ligament, mucoperiosteum, or centrally in the bone. Histologically, both peripheral and central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) are characterized by the presence of numerous multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) in a prominent fibrous stroma. CGCG are further categorized into aggressive and non aggressive variant. The present case...

Author(s): Devi Charan Shetty, Aadithya B, Harish Chandra Rai, Anurag Singh, Ajay Kumar and Adesh Manchanda

  • Article Number: 2A274C04378

January 2011

A narrative insight to maturity-onset diabetes of the young

The pandemic of metabolic disorders is accelerating in the urbanized world posing huge burden to health and economy. The key pioneer to most of the metabolic disorders is insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus commonly known as Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Both of these forms of diabetes are polygenic and multifactorial. A newly discovered...

Author(s): Attiya Kanwal,  Sahar Fazal , Muhammad Ismail, and Nighat Naureen

  • Article Number: 7C51CE34394

November 2010

Effect of drug sample availability on physician prescribing behavior: A systematic review

The purpose of this investigation was to systematically review and assess the influence of the pharmaceutical industry on physician prescribing. MEDLINE, PubMed and WebSPIRS were searched using the following terms: sample closet, drug samples, sample medications, sample medication utilization, sample dispensing, drug sample availability, drug industry, legislation drug samples, drug promotion, prescribing behaviour and...

Author(s): Rugmini Warrier, Michael S. Monaghan, Anna Maio, Kathryn Huggett and Eugene Rich

  • Article Number: 919818B3976

November 2010

The relationship between plasma omentin-1 levels and insulin resistance in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetıc women

In addition to its role in energy storage, adipose tissue produces several hormones and cytokines termed adipokines that have widespread effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Omentin-1 is a newly identified adipokine that is highly and selectively expressed in visceral adipose tissue relative to subcutaneous adipose tissue. In some recent studies, it was shown to be decreased in obese and in insulin resistant...

Author(s): G. Gürsoy,  N. G. Kırnap, O. Eşbah, Y. Acar, B. Demirbaş, S. Akçayöz and A. Öztürk

  • Article Number: 84097CC3987

October 2010

Retrospective analysis of leptospirosis among children – clinico- microbiological and therapeutic aspects for the cases

These case capsules provide a nice record of the identification of leptospirosis in Coimbatore among children in isolation, sensitive serological analysis and complete haematogram. Eight cases that were clinically suspected showing general body signs (jaundice, decreased urine output and arthralgia) were well studied in this investigation. As per this study, the cases had fever, puffiness, respiratory anguish and...

Author(s): Nagarajan Prabhu, Danialas Joseph Pushpa Innocent and Chinnaswamy Periyasamy

  • Article Number: DD676223947

October 2010

Osteopontin a new probable marker for atherosclerosis in obese women?

Obesity is associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation characterized by abnormal cytokine production and macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, which may contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. It was emphasized that inflamation takes part in all stages and complications of atherosclerosis. Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional protein involved in various...

Author(s): G. Gürsoy, S. Alagöz, Y. Acar, B. Demirbaş, H. Çetiner and Z. Kiliç

  • Article Number: 7A603443960

June 2010

Comparison between clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic agent and haloperidol, a conventional agent used to treat schizophrenia

An observational and comparative study was conducted to compare the functional outcome between the patients treated with conventional antipsychotic agent haloperidol and atypical antipsychotic agent Clozapine (clozaril). A total of 32 patients were included in the study with established schizophrenia according to (DSM iv). The data was processed on SSPE 10th version. The primary outcome measure was the improvement...

Author(s): Asiya Rehman Atif, Muhammad Jawed, Syed Muhammad Shahid, Shah Ali Ul Qader and Afsheen Aman

  • Article Number: 3EBD2623893

June 2010

Febrile convulsion and emotional stress

Acute symptomatic convulsions triggered by the fever without the presence of the central nervous system infections or any electrolyte imbalance in the children aged between six months and six years, not having previously known neurological anomalies are called febrile convulsion (FC). In this study, the effect of the emotional stress factor on the febrile convulsion was investigated. In the study, 150 patients, newly...

Author(s): Gökhan Aydemir and Ercüment Bedir

  • Article Number: 58249423907

June 2010

Compartment syndrome

Compartment syndrome is a condition that trauma surgeons are familiar with. A high index of suspicion is needed among clinicians for early recognition and timely referral of this limb and life threatening condition.   Key words: Compartment syndrome, fasciotomy, hyperbaric oxygen.

Author(s): Arcot Rekha

  • Article Number: A996D8E3925

February 2010

Characteristics of chelation therapy among betathalassemia patients in the North of Morocco

The study aims to give a general idea about the experience of chelating drugs among beta-thalassemia patients in Morocco. It is a declarative survey. It was done in the therapy center of Morocco. Statistics were done in the laboratory of biological essays in Kenitra. All economic and pharmacological data were given by Novartis. Sample size was 108.78% of patients attending the service regularly...

Author(s): M. Agouzal, A. Quyou, K. Benchekroune and M. Khattab

  • Article Number: 3368D9D3816

February 2010

Does an acid load promote liver desaturases and increase serum lipids?

Sugar sweetened and acid containing soft drinks may influence the serum lipids. We raised the question whether intake of acid beverages in general might influence serum and liver triglycerides, and hepatic desaturases, which govern triglyceride synthesis. Thirty male rats were divided into 6 groups and given the same food, but various beverages: sucrose-cola, cola light, phosphoric acid, acetic acid or water. Serum...

Author(s): Arne Torbjorn Høstmark, Marianne Sylvana Haug Lunde and Einar Eilertsen

  • Article Number: 9A585423857

November 2009

Histological signs of oligodendroglioma in the brain of rats fed with diet containing yaji: The complex Nigerian suya meat sauce

Yaji is a complex mixture of groundnut cake powder, additives, spices and salt. The production and consumption of Yaji is not regulated despite the excitotoxic, apoptotic and tumourigenic potentials of some of its active principles. This has been the basis for several scientific investigations aimed at determining the effect of Yaji on different body organs. The present study on the brain...

Author(s): A. O. Nwaopara, C. I. P. Anibeze and F. C. Akpuaka

  • Article Number: A773B8E3689

November 2009

Stress incontinence: Are we tackling the right enemy?

A prospective study was done to look at the awareness of patients to the availability of treatment for stress incontinence and whether this would have altered their health seeking pattern. Stress incontinence is when urine leaks because there is a sudden extra pressure ('stress') on the bladder. Questionnaires were distributed to all the patients admitted for continence surgery (n = 26). A second cohort included...

Author(s): Eric Kinoti Mutema

  • Article Number: EDA68903732

November 2009

The effects of combined vitamin C and E in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat kidney

Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Vitamins C and E play important roles in the antioxidant defense system. It is likely that both vitamins act in a synergistic manner, with vitamin E primarily being oxidized to the tocopheroxyl radical and then reduced back to tocopherol by vitamin C....

Author(s): Aysel Kukner, Neriman Colakoglu, Candan Ozogul, Mustafa Nazirogluand Tulin Firat

  • Article Number: 27FE1CB3770

October 2009

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor: The promise of gene therapy coupled with traditional surgical resection, in a single individual

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are mesenchymal tumors arising from the interstitial cells of Cajal. Originally thought to be leiomyosarcomas, these tumors are traditionally resistant to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Molecular studies have identified the gene mutations that cause these masses to proliferate. The KIT proto-oncogene and PDGFRA mutations have been successfully implicated as the insults...

Author(s): Ali Mahmood, Martin Luchtefeld, Anthony Senagore and Allen Silbergleit

  • Article Number: 003940E3625

October 2009

A systematic review of quality of randomized controlled trials of glycyrrhizin acid to treat hepatitis in China

To assess the quality of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) for variety of preparations made from Glycyrrhizin Acid (GA), an ingredient found in Chinese herb Glycyrrhiza that is widely used in the treatment of hepatitis in clinical practice in China. From electronic searches of PubMed, CNKI, TCMDS, CBMdisc and Chongqing VIP database, we identified 93 reported RCTs between 1991 and 2007 that GA was the...

Author(s): Ming-Hua Zheng, Shi-Cheng Yu, Ke-Qing Shi, Xiao-Zhi Jin and Yong-Ping Chen

  • Article Number: 272CEB33641

October 2009

Physico-chemical reaction of the poisons in shakespeare’s tragedies

This paper provides the analysis of the definition of toxins from a medical aspect, as unpoisonous substance given in one dose and as a poisonous substance given in another dose. The aim of this paper is to, from physico-chemical aspect, make connection between toxins from medical aspect considered as a drug and Shakespeare’s plays. The Chinese Doctors appear to have safely andsuccessfully treated...

Author(s): Nada Marstijepovic, Ivana Hajdukovic and Igor Pejovic

  • Article Number: 852DD1C3660

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