African Journal of
Microbiology Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0808
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMR
  • Start Year: 2007

AJMR Articles

July 2018

Determination of aflatoxin M1 in bovine milk from the Alagoas/Brazil State dairy belt by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

Milk is considered a nutritionally noble food and is therefore suitable for feeding children and adults. However, contamination of milk by mycotoxins may pose a health risk to the consumer. Aflatoxins, mycotoxins produced by fungi of the genus Aspergillus, can be found in several food products, including milk and its derivatives, which reinforces the importance of this type of study on the occurrence of the aflatoxin M1...

Author(s): Angela Matilde da Silva Alves, Pabllo Henrique de Souza Lima, Mario Alberto Santos da Costa, Cristian Bernardo da Silva, Jonas dos Santos Sousa, Danielle dos Santos Tavares Pereira, Phabyanno Rodrigues Lima and Johnnatan Duarte de Freitas

July 2018

Microbiological quality and safety of milk production and marketing in Hawassa district, Ethiopia

The microbiological quality and safety of milk samples from different sources in Hawassa distinct from southern nations, nationalities and people regional state was evaluated.  A total of 63 raw milk samples were obtained from three selected dairy farms, urban and rural households. Twenty-seven pasteurized milk samples were obtained from three retail brands from various supermarkets in Hawassa city. Each milk...

Author(s): Habtamu Korma, Ajebu Nurfeta and Edessa Negera

July 2018

Differential niche occupation and the biotechnological potential of Methylobacterium species associated with sugarcane plants

This work highlighted a putative link between the physiological activity and genetic diversity of Methylobacterium species and the association with sugarcane roots and rhizoplane. In total, 40 isolates previously described as pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs), were evaluated for their ability to fix nitrogen and solubilize inorganic phosphate, amylase and pectinase activity. This in vitro...

Author(s): Pedro Avelino Maia de Andrade, Armando Cavalcante Franco Dias, Simone Raposo Cotta, Diogo Paes da Costa, João Tiago Correia Oliveira, Lucianne Ferreira Paes de Oliveira, Fernando José Freire, Fernando Dini Andreote and Julia Kuklinsky-Sobral

June 2018

Isolation and characterization of thermophilic bacteria from different habitats and their assessment for antagonism against soil-borne fungal plant pathogens

Three different biomaterials viz., boiled cow milk, compost manure and tomato rhizospheric soil were found as habitats of the thermophilic antagonistic bacteria. The isolated bacteria were able to grow satisfactorily at thermophilic temperature range (>55C). Based on morphological, biochemical and physiological characters, the bacterial isolates were identified as Bacillus licheniformis (boiled cow milk), and...

Author(s): Rajashree R. Pawar and S. G. Borkar  

June 2018

Bacteriological quality of drinking water obtained from main sources, reservoirs and consumers’ tap in Arba Minch town, Southern Ethiopia

The most common and wide spread health risk associated with drinking water is microbial contamination. The aim of this study is to assess microbial contamination of drinking water, starting from source to distribution systems. Water samples from the Arba Minch town of Southern Ethiopia were collected randomly from the main source before chlorination, reservoir after chlorination and from different points of distribution...

Author(s): Gemechu Ameya, Olifan Zewdie, Abdulhakim Mussema, Adugna Amante and Birhanie Asmera  

June 2018

Phylogenetic diversity of prokaryotes on the snow-cover of Lewis glacier in Mount Kenya

The seasonal snowpack of the temperate glaciers are sources of diverse microbial inoculi. However, the microbial ecology of the tropical glacial surfaces is endangered, hence poses an extinction threat to some populations of some microbes due to rapid loss of the glacier mass. The aim of this study was to isolate and phylogenetically characterise the prokaryotes from the seasonal snow of Lewis glacier in Mt. Kenya. Snow...

Author(s): Josiah O. Kuja, Huxley M. Makonde, Hamadi I. Boga, Anne T. W. Muigai and Jun Uetake  

June 2018

Foods, fish and salmonellosis

Foodborne diseases are those caused by the consumption of water and food contaminated by different causal agents such as: viruses, bacteria, parasites, toxins, among others, being considered an important public health problem global due to its incidence and mortality and for several years for the isolation of microorganisms that cause these diseases resistant to antimicrobials. Salmonella species is considered a food...

Author(s): Alejandro De Jesús Cortés-Sánchez and Luis Daniel Espinosa-Chaurand  

June 2018

Response of microbial communities to oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico: A review

Crude oil has become a part of the marine ecosystem through natural seeps and oil spills. Microbial communities have adopted various response mechanisms to adjust to oil spills that contaminate the marine environment and help restore the ecosystem to its original state. These response mechanisms ranges from change in indigenous microbial community composition, change in microbial diversity to gene diversity and...

Author(s): Linda Adzigbli, Hernado P. Bacosa, and Yuewen Deng,

June 2018

Detection of alpha toxin and enterotoxins of Clostridium perfringens isolated from minced meat by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Clostridium perfringens is one of the most widespread pathogen producing toxins related to variable pathogenic conditions, particularly food poisoning in humans. Thus, this study described the prevalence, enumeration, toxigenic types and antibiotic susceptibility of C. perfringens strains isolated from minced meat in Egypt as well as the validation of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for...

Author(s): Gamal A. Younis, Mona M. Radwan, Rasha M. Elkenany and Marwa H. Elderieny

June 2018

Prevalence, cytotoxicity and antibiotic susceptibility of Campylobacter species recovered from retail chicken meat in Mansoura, Egypt

This study was performed to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter species in retail chicken meat and chicken by-product, determine their in vitro cytotoxicity, as well as, examine their susceptibility to different antimicrobials. A total of 300 raw chicken meat samples were collected from different retail chicken meat outlets located at Mansoura city, Egypt classified into 120 thighs, 120 breasts, and 60 livers. All...

Author(s): A. A. Hafez, G. Younis, M. M. El-Shorbagy and A. Awad

June 2018

Assessment of microbiota in root canals with pulp necrosis by means of Gram test

The aim of this study was to evaluate the type of microbiota present in root canals with pulp necrosis, with and without periapical lesion. Nineteen patients were selected for the study and 30 root canals were analysed in unirradicular and/or multi-radicular permanent teeth, asymptomatic, with pulp necrosis, with or without periapical lesion, and no communication between root canal and oral cavity. Absorbent paper cones...

Author(s): Amaro de Mendonça Cavalcante, Natalia Maria Luccas Tenório Soares, Isabel Cristina Secandes Santos, Eulália Camelo Pessoa de Azevedo Ximenes, Marcos Aurélio Bomfim da  Silva and Karlos Antonio Lisboa Ribeiro Junior

June 2018

Thermotolerant bacteria of biotechnological potential from hot springs in Eritrea

Thermophiles are excellent sources of enzymes that can withstand and carry out reactions efficiently under high temperatures. This study isolated and characterised thermotolerant bacteria that produce enzymes of potential industrial value from five hot springs in Eritrea. A total of 65 bacterial isolates were obtained from the five hot springs. Out of the 65 isolates; 19 isolates produced a positive reaction for...

Author(s): Amanuel Menghs Ghilamicael, Nancy L. M. Budambula, Sylvester Elkana Anami, Tadesse Mehari and Hamadi Iddi Boga

June 2018

Seroprevalence of canine leptospirosis, in Urban and Periurban, Morogoro, Tanzania

A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Morogoro region, Tanzania, to determine the seroprevalence of canine Leptospira exposure. A total of 232 sera were collected from apparently healthy dogs in Mvomero, Morogoro Urban and Morogoro Rural districts. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was performed following standard procedure using panel of six Leptospira serovars. Within the districts, positive reactions...

Author(s): K. Said. G. G. Bakari, R. Machang’u, A. S. Katakweba and A. P. Muhairwa  

June 2018

Exploratory study of hepatitis D virus infection in HBsAg carriers in Abidjan, Côte D’ivoire in 2016

In sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence of co-infection with hepatitis D (HDV) and hepatitis B viruses (HBV) is poorly known. Chronic infection with HBV is currently treated by nucleoside analogs whereas interferon is used to inhibit HDV. Nevertheless, Hepatitis Delta is not routinely diagnosed in Côte d’Ivoire. This study aims to estimate the current prevalence of Hepatitis D infection among HBV-infected...

Author(s): Sévédé Daouda, Doumbia Moussa, Kouakou Viviane, Djehiffe Vicky, Kouassi M’Bengue, and Mireille Dosso,  

June 2018

Exploration of sulfate reducing bacteria from polluted waters

Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) was successfully isolated from Estuary Dam in Suwung Denpasar, Indonesia. This estuary catches highly polluted water from Badung River which runs across and hence carries pollution due to waste disposal from Denpasar City. SRB was studied in detail for their ability to reduce sulfate to sulfide with organic material as an oxidizing agent. SRB exploration of the estuary ecosystem of the...

Author(s): Budiarsa Suyasa W., Iryanti E. Suprihatin, Dwi Adi Suastuti G. A. and Sri Kunti Pancadewi G. A.  

May 2018

Antimicrobial activity of the extracts of Albizia masikororum R.Vig., a Fabaceae from Madagascar

This study is aimed at the assessment of antimicrobial potential of Albizia masikororum, a Malagasy Fabaceae. Hexanic and methanolic extracts from fruit pods, stem bark, leaves and seeds were tested by disc diffusion and microdilution methods on 10 pathogenic microorganisms including four Gram positive bacteria, five Gram negative bacteria and one yeast. Only the leaf and seed methanolic extracts, LME and SME...

Author(s): Anjarasoa Ravo Razafindrakoto, Lovarintsoa Judicael Randriamampianina, Eliane Razafintsalama Vahinalahaja, Hanitra Ranjana Randrianarivo, Danielle Aurore Doll Rakoto and Victor Louis Jeannoda

May 2018

In-vitro antibiotic susceptibility profile of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi isolated from fecal specimens of humans in Umuahia metropolis, Abia State, Nigeria

Typhoid is routinely diagnosed in Nigeria on clinical grounds or based on Widal serological test result. This approach does not provide information on the antibiotic susceptibility of the bacterium; Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi. This study was done to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Salmonella isolates in Umuahia. In this study, seventy-two (72) Salmonella isolates obtained from 135 fecal...

Author(s): Emmanuel O. Ekundayo, and Emmanuel Enya

May 2018

Isolation and identification of Escherichia coli and Edwardsiella tarda from fish harvested for human consumption from Zeway Lake, Ethiopia

A cross sectional study was conducted from November to June 2014/2015 in fish harvested for human consumption at Lake Zeway with the objective of isolating Edwardsiella tarda and Escherichia coli important pathogens and contaminants its products. Three hundred tissue samples comprising Spleen, Liver and Intestine were collected from 100 fish (12 Clarias gariepenus and 88 Oreochromis niloticus) originated from lake...

Author(s): Adanech Beshada Haile and Temesgen Kassa Getahun

May 2018

Molecular characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from a ready-to-eat fermented milk and cereal product, Fura-de-Nunu

This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of Listeria (L.) monocytogenes in Fura-de-Nunu, a ready-to-eat (RTE) fermented milk (Nunu) and cereal (Fura) blend, the serogroups as well as the virulence of the isolates. A total of 75 Fura and 75 Nunu samples were examined. Listeria species were isolated on PALCAM medium and Listeria chromogenic agar, and identified phenotypically according to International...

Author(s): EZEONU Ifeoma M., ONONUGBO Chukwuebuka M. and IKE Anthony C.  

May 2018

Emphasis on functional properties of cocoa-specific acidifying lactic acid bacteria for cocoa beans fermentation improvement

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from six main Ivorian cocoa producer regions were investigated based on their biochemical properties in order to select the best one as potential starter. Three main technological and useful properties for good cocoa beans fermentation were monitored among the 568 isolated LAB strains. Thus, between the 408 cocoa-specific acidifying LAB strains identified, 05.88% (24 isolates)...

Author(s): Evelyne Cho Adiko,  Ginette Gladys Doué٭, Lessoy Thierry Zoué and Sébastien Lamine Niamké

May 2018

OXA-48 type carbapenemase in Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended spectrum B-lactamases (ESBL) in Senegal

Enterobactericeae producing extended spectrum b-lactamases (ESBL) are likely to express carbapenemases OXA-48 which have hydrolytic activity on carbapenems. The aim of this work was to evaluate prevalence of blaOXA-48 for Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates producing ESBL. This work was conducted at the French Reference Center for Antibiotic Resistance with strains from Senegalese Hospital. Standard antibiogram was performed...

Author(s): Lo Seynabou, Robin Frédéric, Beyrouthy Racha, Ba-Diallo Awa, Niang Aïssatou Ahmet, Diagne Rokhaya, Diop Amadou, Camara Makhtar, Ka Roughyatou, Gaye-Diallo Aïssatou, Sow Ahmad Iyane and Bonnet Richard

May 2018

Bactericidal and brine shrimps toxicity of essential oils from Aframomum Melegueta [K. Schum]

Aframomum melegueta (Roscoe) K. Schum, family of Zingiberaceae, is a tropical tree with spicy edible fruit. This plant has both medicinal and nutritive values. There is paucity of literature on the toxicity and bioactivity of the essential oils from this plant from Nigeria. Essential oils were extracted from the leaves, stems, roots (rhizomes) and seeds of the plant through hydro-distillation using the Clevenger-type...

Author(s): Owokotomo I. A.

May 2018

Antibacterial activity of selected Dendrobium species against clinically isolated multiple drug resistant bacteria

Dendrobium species are widely used in traditional medicine as remedies for tonic to nourish the stomach, promote the production of body fluids and decrease fever. In this study, the antibacterial activities of four traditionally used Dendrobium species were tested against clinically isolated multiple drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. Hexane, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and methanol extracts of Dendrobium amoenum,...

Author(s): Mukti Ram Paudel, Neeta Rajbanshi, Anil Kumar Sah, Sameer Acharya and Bijaya Pant

May 2018

Effect of processing methods on the chemical composition and microbiological quality of vegetable drink extract of african bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis)

The effect of processing methods on the chemical composition, proximate, mineral, vitamin and microbiological quality of vegetable drink extract of Irvingia gabonensis was studied. The processing methods included drying (shade and solar drying), blanching (at 0, 2, 4 and 6 min) as well as blanching and drying of the leaves. Aqueous extracts were obtained from the leaves and the analysis carried out using standard...

Author(s): Mbaeyi-Nwaoha I. E. and Akobueze E. U.

May 2018

Drug resistance in African animal trypanosomes: A review

Animal African trypanosmiasis (AAT) is the most important factor contributing to the sub potential performance of livestock. AAT is caused by Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma brucei. Chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis are the major means of combating the disease. An estimated 17 million cattle are treated with trypanocides annually. The emergence of drug-resistant trypanosome strains is...

Author(s): Solomon Assefa and Workineh Shibeshi

May 2018

Metagenomic analysis of enteric bacterial pathogens affecting the performance of dairy cows in smallholder productions systems

There is little information about the diversity of bacterial pathogens present in the rumen and feces of healthy cow and the subsequent effects on the performance of the host animal. The objectives of the present study were to genetically characterize the enteric bacterial pathogens found in the rumen fluid and cow feces and to identify the resistant genes responsible for antimicrobial resistance in the detected...

Author(s): Vincent Habimana, Rawlynce Cheruiyot Bett, Joshua Oluoch Amimo, Felix Matura Kibegwa, Dedan Githae and Joseph Owino Jung’a

May 2018

Effectiveness of exopolysaccharides and biofilm forming plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on salinity tolerance of faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

This study aimed to investigate the production of biofilm and exopolysaccharides by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) under different salt concentrations. In this study, the activity of biofilm formation and exopolysaccharides production by 20 strains of PGPR which previously isolated and identified from root samples of different crops were determined under different salt concentrations. Out of 20 strains,...

Author(s): Alaa Fathalla Mohammed

May 2018

Isolation, identification and bioactivity of fungal endophytes from selected Kenyan medicinal plants

Infectious diseases remain a global health burden due to development of antibiotic resistance by pathogenic microorganisms. Antibiotic resistance has led to increased number of deaths among children and adults. This study sought to isolate and identify fungal endophytes from selected Kenyan medicinal plants and screen them and their extracts for bioactivity against selected test human pathogens. Fifty-five fungal...

Author(s): Velma Wekesa Nasimiyu, Isabel Nyokabi Wagara, Meshack Amos Obonyo and Josphat Clement Matasyoh

April 2018

Good hygiene practices and microbiological contamination in commercial restaurants

Food services and commercial restaurants have gained more space in people’s lives. Thus, people are more concerned about food security and sanitary hygiene. The present study evaluated practices of manipulation and contamination of environments and the preparation of surfaces in commercial restaurants in Vitória-ES, Brazil. Data on good practices were collected through a checklist proposal based on the RDC...

Author(s): Rosiane Cosme Nascimento, Elizandra Maier Silva and Jackline Freitas Brilhante de São José  

April 2018

blaKPC-2 and blaOXA-48 producing Klebsiella pneumoniae found in a Turkish hospital in the Balkans

Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying blaKPC-2, blaOxa48, and other metallo--lactamases (MBLs) are difficult to treat. This study was conducted to study the phenotypic and genotypic features of carbapenem resistance in isolates of K. pneumoniae isolated from a tertiary care hospital in the European region of Turkey. Isolates of K. pneumonia (n=100) resistant to at least one carbapenem (imipenem,...

Author(s): Sebnem Bukavaz, Metin Budak and Aygül Dogan Celik  

April 2018

Screening of bioactive compound, antimicrobial activity producing halophilic isolates from the saltpans of Thoothukudi district

Extreme environments harbor a number of microbes producing novel bioactive compounds. The aim of our study is to isolate and identify bioactive compound producing halophiles. Marine soil sediments were collected from the solar saltpans of Thoothukudi District, Tamil Nadu, India. Based on colony morphology, two species were isolated and identification was done by using morphological and biochemical tests. The extracts of...

Author(s): Deepalaxmi R. K. and Gayathri C.  

April 2018

Effect of indigenous and effective microorganism fertilizers on soil microorganisms and yield of Irish potato in Bambili, Cameroon

Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum) is one of the world’s most consumed staple worldwide and an important crop in terms of food security in the face of population growth and increased hunger rates. Potato yields in Cameroon have often been low as a result of decrease in soil fertility. Soil fertility has often been regarded as the chemical and physical properties of soil, with the microbial aspect often being...

Author(s): Taffouo Victor Desiré, Muyang Rosaline Fosah, Mbouobda Hermann Desiré, and Fotso,  

April 2018

Ameliorative effect of imipenem on pulmonary damage caused by extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria isolates from non- human source

Acute lung infection induced by Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBL) producing isolates was determined by measuring inflammatory mediators; malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and nitric oxide (NO). The mice were randomly divided into three groups of 20 animals each. All mice were given 104 c.f.u. ml-1 of the test organism intranasally in a volume of 50 µl while holding the mouse in an upright...

Author(s): Afunwa R. A., Iroha R. I., Ugwu M., Afunwa E. C., Unachuchwu M. N. and Esimone C. O.  

April 2018

Evaluation of gene xpert assay and microscopic examination for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum at Port Harcourt, Nigeria

The re-emergence and increase in the prevalence of tuberculosis cases and multidrug resistant strains is of public health concern. The conventional Acid Fast Bacilli detection tool is weak in the current disease trend especially in children, patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and low bacterial load. The aim of this research was to assess effectiveness of the Gene Xpert MTB/RIF assay and Microscopy in...

Author(s): Confidence Kinikanwo Wachukwu, Stella Paulinus Okwelle, Easter Godwin Nwokah and Ollor Amba Ollor  

April 2018

Characterization of p30 membrane protein gene of Mycoplasma agalactiae isolates by polymerase chain reaction and restriction endonuclease enzyme assay

Seven hundred and eight (708) samples collected from the goats of Gujarat were screened for Mycoplasma agalactiae by culture and PCR using 16S rRNA based genus specific and species-specific primers. Amplification of the p30 membrane protein gene was carried out using specific primers and the resultant amplicons were subjected to restriction enzyme analysis. The isolates yielded 715 bp and 360 bp products with...

Author(s): Pranay K., Roy A. and Aher T. K.  

April 2018

Assessment of the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacilli at the Charles De Gaulle Paediatric University Hospital (CDG-PUH), Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a serious concern in developing countries due to precarious hygiene conditions, inappropriate prescription as well as self-medication and free sale of antibiotics. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of strains producing extended-spectrum beta- lactamase in the Gram negative bacteria isolated in the laboratory. The study was conducted in the Charles De Gaulle Paediatric...

Author(s): Mahamoudou Sanou,, Absétou Ky/Ba, Pricille Coulibali, Marius Nagalo, Abdoul Salam Ouédraogo, Mamadou Tamboura, Dinanibé Kambiré, Cyrille Bisseye, Fidèle Bakiono, Jacques Simporé and Ramata Ouédraogo,

April 2018

Incidence of bacterial infection in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients with cirrhosis and association between toll-like receptor 4 D299G gene polymorphism and Gram- negative bacterial infections in the patients

This study aimed to investigate the incidence of bacterial infection in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients with cirrhosis and association between toll-like receptor 4 D299G gene polymorphism and Gram-negative bacterial infections in the patients. 100 HCV cirrhotic patients with ascites and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects as control were included. Conventional culture methods were used to identify the...

Author(s): Hanan El-Bassat, Lobna Abo Ali, Atef Taha and Rasha Alm El-Din  

April 2018

Identification of insect and disease associated to citrus in Northern Ethiopia

The survey was carried out in 2016 in the production of citrus fruits at Adiha and Sheka Tekli irrigation schemes of Kolla Tembien and Tanqua Abergelle districts, to assess the type of diseases, the causes and the characteristic symptoms of the diseases and to identify the types of insect pests that inflict serious damage. The laboratory analysis result depicted that bacteria and fungi caused most of the diseases of...

Author(s): Atsbha Gebreslasie and Hintsa Meresa

April 2018

Assessment of antimicrobial resistance patterns in Escherichia coli isolated from clinical samples in Madinah, Saudi Arabia

Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative bacteria that causes various diseases, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and diarrhoea. The present work is an effort to study antimicrobial resistance pattern in this bacteria. Clinical samples (6840) were collected from King Fahd Hospital in Madinah, Saudi Arabia and screened for E. coli strains. Of all positive samples obtained from different clinical sources, about 3%...

Author(s): Walaa M. Saeed, Samah Ghanem, Hatem M. El Shafey, and Nikhat Manzoor,#

March 2018

Influence of subminimal inhibitory concentrations of some bioactive compounds on the biofilm formation ability and virulence factors of multiple drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates

The objective of this study was to assess the impact of subminimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of chosen antimicrobial agents (Amikacin, imipenem, benzalkonium chloride, and chlorhexidine) and natural product (garlic) on biofilm formation ability, bacterial adherence and invasion. Susceptibility profiles of 50 non-repetitive Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates to eight antibiotics were investigated. MIC...

Author(s): Mona H. Mahmoud, Magdy A. Amin, Rania I Shebl, Aly F. Mohamed and Mai M. Zafer  

March 2018

Management of bacterial wilt disease of potato in coastal plains of Odisha

Bacterial wilt and brown rot caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most dreaded diseases causing 30 to 70% yield loss in India. The disease is both tuber and soil borne. A field trial was conducted following split plot design in the year 2008 to 09 and 2009 to 10 under All India Co-ordinated Potato Research Project in Central Farm, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India with...

Author(s): Biswal, G. and Dhal, N. K.  

March 2018

Isolation, identification and evaluation of mosquito entomopathogenic Bacillus species and related genera from randomly selected sites in Kenya

This study was carried out to identify specific mosquitocidal Bacillus species and related genera for future development of biopesticides in local mosquito control program in Kenya. Bacterial isolation was conducted from 100 soil samples through pasteurization method and preliminary identification conducted through phenotypical analysis. Toxicity analysis was performed through bioassays and lethal concentrations (LC)...

Author(s): Samuel Karungu, Doudou Huang, Evans Atoni, Cecilia Waruhiu, Bernard Agwanda, Xiaomin Hu and Zhiming Yuan

March 2018

Antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of endophytic fungi from Oryctanthus alveolatus (Kunth) Kuijt (Mistletoe)

The use of antibiotics has unleashed high bacterial resistance. This outcome triggered the urgent need for effective new antibacterial agents to treat infectious diseases. A promising source for the production of antibiotics and several other bioactive substances are endophytic fungi. These microorganisms inhabit in and bring benefits to living plant tissues. Thus, the aim of this paper was to know the endophytic fungi...

Author(s): Sanay Feitosa Lima Ribeiro, Armando da Costa Garcia, Hathyla Eduarda Dias dos Santos, Quimi Vidaurre Montoya, Andre Rodrigues, João Marcos de Oliveira and  Camila Martins de Oliveira  

March 2018

Physiochemical factors affecting in vitro growth of Pasteurella multocida

Pasteurella multocida causes fowl cholera (FC), a contagious bacterial disease of domestic and wild avian species. It is a Gram negative coccobacilli causing acute highly fatal septicemia with high morbidity and mortality rate. Control of fowl cholera is primarily performed by good management practice and vaccination in areas where disease is endemic. For a quality vaccine, high density growth of P. multocida along with...

Author(s): Mehmood M. D., Zia S., Javed F., Gul M., Ashraf M. and Anwar H.  

March 2018

The effect of Thymus vulgaris on growth and biofilm formation of uropathogenic Escherichia coli

Currently, a problem related to public health is resistance to antibiotics because bacteria have been identified to be resistant. It has been reported that bacteria have developed resistance mechanisms to evade the effect of drugs, especially antibiotics. A resistance mechanism to antibiotics is biofilm formation. The biofilms are microbial communities embedded in an extracellular polymeric matrix and are ubiquitous in...

Author(s): Flores-Encarnación M., Nava-Nolazco R. M., Aguilar-Gutiérrez G. R., Carreño-López R. and García-García S. C.  

March 2018

Efficacy of two probiotics in the control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in experimentally infected lambs

This study was designed to determine the efficacy of probiotics mixture in the control of Shiga-toxin Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 in experimentally infected lambs. Fifteen Yankassa breed of lambs aged between 3-4 weeks old were used. The lambs were divided into three groups of five lambs each (n=5).  Group A: Neither probiotics nor STEC O157:H7 were administered (control), Group B: lambs were administered...

Author(s): Kingsley Chineto Anyika, Solomon Olu Okaiyeto, Shehu Na’allah Saidu and Gabriel Ogbaji Ijale  

March 2018

Potassium phosphite reduction of Candidatus Liberibacter spp. population on leaves of 'Ponkan' tangerines tree with huanglongbing

The objective of this work was to evaluate the population variation dynamics of Candidatus Liberibacter spp. under phosphite applications. The 'Ponkan' tangerines (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) with symptoms and a high degree of huanglongbing (HLB) severity were used for the test. 'Ponkan' tangerine plants were treated with potassium phosphite leaf applications at a dose of 2.5 L ha-1....

Author(s): Rener Luciano de Souza Ferraz, Marcelo de Andrade Barbosa, Maria José Araújo Wanderley, Patrícia da Silva Costa, Ivomberg Dourado Magalhães, Aldair de Souza Medeiros, Hugo Miranda Faria, Vinicius Marchioro, Alberto Soares de Melo and Franklin Alves dos Anjos  

March 2018

Evidence of curtovirus competition and synergy in co-infected plant hosts

Curtoviruses, members of the Geminiviridae, have wide host ranges, including weeds and crops and are often found in mixed infections of different strains. While other members of the Geminiviridae have been demonstrated to interact through competition and synergism in mixed infections in plants, either type of interaction has not been reported in curtoviruses. This research used qPCR to study the interactions between...

Author(s): Stephen A. Peinado Jr., Jorge Achata Böttger, Li-Fang Chen, Robert Gilbertson and Rebecca Creamer  

March 2018

Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) growing in Ethiopia are nodulated by diverse rhizobia

A total of eighty one (81) rhizobial isolates were recovered from root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) grown in soils collected from eight different sites (Hawassa, Wondogenet, Chofa, Badawacho, Bodity, Gofa, Ziway, and Alemtena) in Ethiopia with no known history of inoculation. The test isolates together with seven reference strains belonging to five genera including...

Author(s): Tulu Degefu, Endalkachew Wolde-meskel, Zikie Ataro, Asnake Fikre, Tilahun Amede and Chris Ojiewo  

March 2018

Virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from frozen vegetables available in the Egyptian market

Listeria monocytogenes is among the most important foodborne pathogens. It may enter food-processing environments through raw materials, handlers or equipment and may persist due to ineffective cleaning or sanitation. The bacterium can be isolated from both frozen vegetables and fresh food substances. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in spices and frozen vegetables and screen for some...

Author(s): Rasha I. Mohamed , Mohamed A. Abdelmonem and Heba M. Amin

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