Biotransformation of ferulic acid to 4-vinyl guaiacol by
Hadiza Altine Adamu1,
Shahid Iqbal1,2, Kim Wei Chan1 and
1Laboratory of Molecular
Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra
Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
of Chemistry, University of Sargodha,
of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health
Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang,
*Corresponding author. E-mail:
Tel: +603-89472115. Fax: +603-89472116.
Ferulic acid; 4VG, 4-vinyl guaiacol.
Accepted 5 August, 2011
Continuously growing demand for natural flavors has led to a
tremendous increase in biotransformation
process employing microorganisms
of different genera using ferulic acid (FA) as the
precursor. In this study, potential of Lactobacillus
farciminis (ATCC 29644) for biotransformation of FA to
4-vinyl guaiacol (4VG)
4-vinyl guaiacol is a volatile phenol, reported to have 40
fold higher economic value than FA and is biotransformable
to acetovanillone, ethylguaiacol and vanillin.
Biotransformation process started after 5 h incubation of
L. farciminis with FA in Man Regosa and Sharpe (MRS)
broth at 37°C under 5% CO2. Production rate
was observed at its maximum after 48 h. Formed 4VG was
identified by GC-MS (QQQ) and quantification was done by
HPLC UV-Vis. The impact of initial concentrations of FA and
bacteria on the production of 4VG was studied. The results
indicate that the production of 4VG is significantly
affected by initial concentration of FA, and empirically 1,
15 and 50 mg/l of FA yielded 0, 3.34 and 10.26 mg/l of 4VG,
respectively. The findings are a milestone towards safe high
yielding means of biotransforming some common
agro-industrial wastes to a value added product.
ferulic acid, 4-vinyl guaiacol,