associated with the Eastern Himalayan spruce bark beetle (Ips
schmutzenhoferi) in Bhutan: Species assemblage and phytopathogenicity
Thomas Kirisits1*, Heino Konrad1,2,
Michael J. Wingfield3 and Dal Bahadur Chhetri4
of Forest Entomology, Forest Pathology and Forest Protection
(IFFF), Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, University
of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU),
Hasenauerstraße 38, A-1190 Vienna, Austria.
and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and
Landscape (BFW), Department of Genetics,
Unit of Ecological Genetics and Biodiversity, Hauptstraße 7,
A-1140 Vienna, Austria.
and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University
of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa.
Natural Resources (RNR) Research and Development Sub-centre,
Darla, Department of Forest and Park Services, Ministry of
Agriculture and Forests, Royal Government of Bhutan, Darla,
*Corresponding author. E-mail:
30 November, 2011
A brief synthesis of recent studies on the ophiostomatoid
fungi associated with the Eastern Himalayan spruce bark
beetle, Ips schmutzenhoferi and on the pathogenicity
of selected fungal associates of this insect to Picea
spinulosa and Pinus wallichiana is presented.
I. schmutzenhoferi is intimately asso-ciated with
ophistomatoid fungi and eleven fungal associates belonging
to the genera Ceratocystis, Ceratocystiopsis,
Grosmannia, Ophiostoma, Leptographium
and Pesotum were documented in a survey in Western
Bhutan in 2001. In inoculation experiments with four
ophiostomatoid fungi, conducted in 2005, Leptographium
sp. 1, the most common fungal associate of I.
schmutzenhoferi, displayed high levels of virulence to
P. spinulosa. In contrast, P. wallichiana was
highly resistant to inoculation with all four fungal
species. The pathogenicity trials indicate that fungal
associates of I. schmutzenhoferi and especially
Leptographium sp. 1 prefer P. spinulosa over
P. wallichiana as host, as is true of the insect itself.
Ophiostoma sensu lato, blue-stain fungi, fungal
associates, insect-fungus symbiosis.