Effect of addition of
Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) shell in incense
material on mitigating air pollutants
Yen-Shun Peng2, Yih-Feng
Chang3 and Sun-Zone
of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia-Nan
University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 71710, Taiwan.
of Environmental Resources Management, Chia-Nan University
of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 71710, Taiwan.
of Tourism Management, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and
Science, Tainan 71710, Taiwan.
firstname.lastname@example.org. Tel: +886 6 2664911 ext 6414.
Fax: +886 6 2669090.
Accepted 22 March, 2011.
Particulate matter (PM)
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions of burning
incense have been investigated on the quality of surrounding
air. However, the
from burning incense has received little attention. In the
present study, two types of incense were made in the
laboratory. Five to thirty percent of Asiatic Clam Shell
(ACS) was added to Liao and Chen wood flours, which are
popular incense materials. Experimental results indicate
that the reduction of emissions of PM and PAHs from burning
incense increased with increasing amount of ACS additive.
Mean PM reductions for 5.0, 10.0, 20.0, and 30.0% of ACS
were 11, 15, 26, and 40%, respectively. Mean PAH reductions
were 9, 15, 22, and 28% for particle-phase PAHs,
respectively, and 5, 21, 22, and 30% for benzo[a]pyrene
equivalent concentration, respectively. These results may be
attributed to ACS acted as filler in the burning incense.
ACS was substituted for organic material in the incense
reducing PM and PAHs emissions from the smolder. The
findings of this study may serve as a guide to producing
safer and less-polluting incense.
Key words: Incense, Asiatic Clam Shell, PM, PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene