On the accuracy of hiding
information metrics: Counterfeit protection for education
and important certificates
A. K. Hmood, Z. M.
Kasirun, H. A. Jalab, G. M. Alam, A. A. Zaidan and B. B.
of Computer Science and Information Technology, University
of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya,
Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.
of Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
*Corresponding author. E-mail:
+ 603-7967 5077. Fax: + 603-7967 5010.
Accepted 13 July, 2010.
two techniques used to hide information - one is
steganography while the other is digital watermarking.
The objective of this paper is to investigate the
functionality and reliability of using the current metrics,
which are used to measure the distortion caused by secret
data embedding. These metrics are used to measure the
quality of the steganographic or watermarked objects. The
signal-to-noise ratio, peak signal-to-noise ratio, mean
square error, root mean square error, histogram and human
vision test are the current measurements for the
steganographic object. The paper will also discuss the
widely used metrics and their limitations. Apart from this,
it will also look at how researchers have criticized the
metrics and how these metrics are used to measure the
quality of steganographic or watermarked objects.
Steganography, digital watermarking, SNR, PSNR, MSE, RMSE,
histogram, human vision, quality metrics.