fatty acid profile of the oil extracted from fish waste
(head, intestine and liver) (Euthynnus affinis)
Ariffin, A. A.1, Bakar, J.1 and
Ghazali, H. M.2
of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Science and Technology,
Universiti Putra Malaysia.
43400 Serdang, Selangor,
of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology,
Universiti Putra Malaysia,
43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
*Corresponding author. E-mail:
Abbreviations: EPA, Eicosapentaenoic acid; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; PVe,
peroxide value; IV, iodine value; FID, flame
ionization detector; FAME, fatty acid methyl ester;
FFA, free fatty acid; SFAs, saturated fatty
acids; MUFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids; DSC,
differential scanning calorimetry.
Accepted 23 May, 2011
Marine lipid contains long-chain n-3 (omega-3)
polyunsaturated (PUFA), particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
(C20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
(C22:6 n-3). Consumptions of these PUFAs have been perceived
to be important in human nutrition, health and disease
prevention. Tuna, the important industrial fish, discharged
substantial amount of wastes. These wastes include the head,
liver and intestine. Considerable amount of lipid can be
extracted from these wastes. The yield and chemical quality
of the oils were determined. All the extracted oils were
less than 8%, of which the highest was in head (7.01%).
Among different lipid sources (head, intestine and liver),
the free fatty acid and peroxide value significantly
increased (P < 0.05) from head to liver. The highest iodine
value was found in head lipid.
The predominant fatty acids in tuna wastes were palmitic
(C16:0; 27.63 - 32.74%), stearic (C18:0; 8.82- 13.62%),
oleic (C18:1c; 9.16- 11.95%) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA;
C22:6; 14.18- 15.70%).
Differential scanning calorimetery results for tuna waste
lipid samples indicated that higher unsaturation in lipid
sample showed lower cooling and melting temperature.
The n-3 / n-6 ratio of the respective head, liver and
intestine lipid samples showed value higher than 1. Due to
n-3 fatty acid compound and n-3 / n-6 ratio, lipid from tuna
head may be a valuable source for human consumption.
n-3 Fatty acid, fish waste, fish lipid, n-3 / n-6 ratio, EPA,