vitamins C and E pretreatments on cadmium-induced serum
levels of some biochemical and hormonal parameters in the
female guinea pig
A. W. Obianime, N. J. Ahiwe and J. S.
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical
Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State,
P.M.B. 5323, Nigeria.
Tel: 234 (0) 8035082379.
ALP, Alkaline phosphatase; Cd, cadmium; Vit
C, vitamin C; Vit E, vitamin E; LH, luteinizing
hormone; FSH, follicle- stimulating hormone; ip,
intra-peritoneally; ROS, reactive oxygen species;
PKC, protein kinase C; ALP, alkaline phosphatase;
SEM, standard error of mean.
Accepted 20 August, 2010
Cadmium is a widely
distributed environmental pollutant and toxicant. The
present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of
vitamins C and E on cadmium-induced serum levels of alkaline
phosphatase (ALP), urea, creatinine, progesterone, LH and
FSH in the female guinea pig. Animals were given single
doses of vitamins C (1.5 mg/kg) and E (50 mg/kg) per oral
and (0 - 8 mg Cd/kg ip) for 24 h. Animals were sacrificed
and the serum levels of the above parameters were measured.
Also, the effects of pretreatments with vitamins C and E on
Cd-induced serum levels of the parameters were determined.
Serum levels of all parameters were significantly (p ≤ 0.05)
decreased in a dose-dependent manner in vitamins-treated
animals, while they were increased in cadmium-treated
animals, compared to the control animals. Furthermore,
pretreatments with vitamins C, E and combination of both
vitamins reduced the cadmium-induced serum levels of all
parameters, which was most pronounced in animals pretreated
with a combination of both vitamins, especially on ALP and
progesterone levels. These results may be due to the
oxidative and anti-oxidative properties of cadmium and the
vitamins (C and E) respectively, acting through calcium and
protein kinase C signal transduction pathways.
Antioxidants, cadmium, pretreatment and vitamins.