germination and structure of hard seed testa of natural
tetraploid Trifolium pratense L.
H. Çölgeçen1*, H. N. Büyükkartal2
and M. C. Toker2
Karaelmas University, Faculty of Arts and Science,
Department of Biology, 67100 İncivez, Zonguldak,Turkey.
University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 06100
*Corresponding author. E-mail:
Accepted 3 March, 2008
non-scarified seeds of natural tetraploid Trifolium
pratense L. were germinated on in vitro and ex
vitro germination media. The medium producing the best
outcome was determined and germination media were compared.
Additionally, testa of normal and hard seeds were examined.
The media producing the best outcomes in both seed groups
(scarified and non-scarified) were hormone-free MS medium,
filter paper and soil respectively. Macrosclereid layer of
normal seed testa was thicker than that of hard seed testa
due to imbibitions. Whereas, epidermis walls in the
macrosclereid layer of hard seed testa were thicker when
compared to those of normal seed testa.
Trifolium, hard seed, in vitro, ex vitro,